2. Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies
GAAP – The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”).
Fiscal year – The Company's fiscal year ends on the Friday nearest July 31st and each quarter consists of thirteen weeks unless noted otherwise. References in these Notes to a year or quarter are to the Company's fiscal year or quarter unless noted otherwise.
Principles of consolidation – The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries, all of which are wholly owned. All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
Fair value measurements – Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. In determining fair value, a three level hierarchy for inputs is used. These levels are:
Level 1 – quoted prices (unadjusted) for an identical asset or liability in an active market.
Level 2 – quoted prices for a similar asset or liability in an active market or model-derived valuations in which all significant inputs are observable for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
Level 3 – unobservable and significant to the fair value measurement of the asset or liability.
The fair values of cash equivalents and deferred compensation plan assets (included in other assets) are based on quoted market prices. The fair values of accounts receivable and accounts payable at July 29, 2011 and July 30, 2010, approximate their carrying amounts because of their short duration. The fair value of the Company's variable rate debt, based on quoted market prices, totaled approximately $550,000 and $566,510 on July 29, 2011 and July 30, 2010, respectively. The estimated fair value of the Company's interest rate swaps is the present value of the expected cash flows, which is calculated by using the replacement fixed rate in the then-current market, and incorporates the Company's non-performance risk. See Note 3 for additional information on the Company's fair value measurements.
Cash and cash equivalents – The Company's policy is to consider all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Property held for sale – Property held for sale consists of real estate properties that the Company expects to sell within one year and is reported at the lower of carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell. At July 29, 2011, property held for sale consisted of office space.
Accounts receivable – Accounts receivable, net of the allowance for doubtful accounts, represents their estimated net realizable value. Provisions for doubtful accounts are recorded based on historical collection experience and the age of the receivables. Accounts receivable are written off when they are deemed uncollectible.
Inventories – Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost of restaurant inventory is determined by the first-in, first-out (“FIFO”) method. Retail inventories are valued using the retail inventory method (“RIM”) except at the retail distribution center which uses average cost. In 2011, due to lower inventory levels at the Company's retail distribution center as compared to prior years, approximately 80% of retail inventories are valued using RIM and the remaining 20% are valued using an average cost method. In 2010, approximately 70% of retail inventories are valued using RIM and the remaining 30% are valued using an average cost method. Valuation provisions are included for retail inventory obsolescence, retail inventory shrinkage, returns and amortization of certain items.
Cost of goods sold includes an estimate of retail inventory shrinkage that is adjusted upon physical inventory counts. Annual physical inventory counts are conducted throughout the third and fourth quarters based upon a cyclical inventory schedule. An estimate of shrinkage is recorded for the time period between physical inventory counts by using a three-year average of the physical inventories' results on a store-by-store basis.
Property and equipment – Property and equipment are stated at cost. For financial reporting purposes, depreciation and amortization on these assets are computed by use of the straight-line and double-declining balance methods over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets, as follows:
Buildings and improvements
Buildings under capital leases
Restaurant and other equipment
Accelerated depreciation methods are generally used for income tax purposes.
Total depreciation expense was $61,677, $59,930 and $57,706 for 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively. Depreciation expense related to store operations was $56,985, $56,402 and $53,745 for 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively, and is included in other store operating expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Income.
Capitalized interest was $350, $215 and $445 for 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.
Gain or loss is recognized upon disposal of property and equipment. The asset and related accumulated depreciation and amortization amounts are removed from the accounts.
Maintenance and repairs, including the replacement of minor items, are charged to expense and major additions to property and equipment are capitalized.
Impairment of long-lived assets – The Company assesses the impairment of long-lived assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets is measured by comparing the carrying value of the asset to the undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If the total expected future cash flows are less than the carrying value of the asset, the carrying value is written down, for an asset to be held and used, to the estimated fair value or, for an asset to be disposed of, to the fair value, net of estimated costs of disposal. Any loss resulting from impairment is recognized by a charge to income. Judgments and estimates made by the Company related to the expected useful lives of long-lived assets are affected by factors such as changes in economic conditions and changes in operating performance. The accuracy of such provisions can vary materially from original estimates and management regularly monitors the adequacy of the provisions until final disposition occurs. See Notes 3 and 9 for additional information on the Company's impairment of long-lived assets.
Derivative instruments and hedging activities – The Company is exposed to market risk, such as changes in interest rates and commodity prices. The Company has interest rate risk relative to its outstanding borrowings, which bear interest at the Company's election either at the prime rate or LIBOR plus a percentage point spread based on certain specified financial ratios under its credit facility (see Note 5). The Company's policy has been to manage interest cost using a mix of fixed and variable rate debt. To manage this risk in a cost efficient manner, the Company uses derivative instruments, specifically interest rate swaps.
On May 4, 2006, the Company entered into an interest rate swap (the “2006 swap”) in which it agreed to exchange with a counterparty, at specified intervals effective August 3, 2006, the difference between fixed and variable interest amounts calculated by reference to an agreed-upon notional principal amount. The swapped portion of the outstanding debt or notional amount of the 2006 interest rate swap is as follows:
From August 3, 2006 to May 2, 2007
| ||$||525,000|| |
From May 3, 2007 to May 5, 2008
| || ||650,000|| |
From May 6, 2008 to May 4, 2009
| || ||625,000|| |
From May 5, 2009 to May 3, 2010
| || ||600,000|| |
From May 4, 2010 to May 2, 2011
| || ||575,000|| |
From May 3, 2011 to May 2, 2012
| || ||550,000|| |
From May 3, 2012 to May 3, 2013
| || ||525,000|| |
The 2006 swap was accounted for as a cash flow hedge and expires in May 2013. The rate on the portion of the Company's outstanding debt covered by the 2006 swap is fixed at a rate of 5.57% plus the Company's credit spread over the 7-year life of the 2006 swap. The Company's weighted average credit spreads at July 29, 2011 and July 30, 2010 were 2.00% and 1.90%, respectively.
On August 10, 2010, the Company entered into a second interest rate swap (the “2010 swap”) in which it agreed to exchange with a counterparty, effective May 3, 2013, the difference between fixed and variable interest amounts calculated by reference to the notional principal amount of $200,000. This interest rate swap was also accounted for as a cash flow hedge. The rate on the portion of the Company's outstanding debt covered by the 2010 swap will be fixed at a rate of 2.73% plus the Company's credit spread over the 2-year life of the 2010 swap.
On July 25, 2011, the Company entered into two additional interest rate swaps; one with a 2-year life (the “2011 2-year swap”) and one with a 3-year life (the “2011 3-year swap”). For both of these interest rate swaps, the Company agreed to exchange with counterparties, effective May 3, 2013, the difference between fixed and variable interest amounts calculated by reference to the notional principal amount of $50,000 for each interest rate swap. These interest rate swaps were also accounted for as cash flow hedges. The rates on the portion of the Company's outstanding debt covered by the 2011 2-year swap and 2011 3-year swap will be fixed at 2.00% and 2.45%, respectively, plus the Company's credit spreads over the respective lives of the interest rate swaps.
Additionally, on September 19, 2011, the Company entered into two interest rate swaps. For both of these interest rate swaps, the Company agreed to exchange with counterparties, effective May 3, 2013, the difference between fixed and variable interest amounts calculated by reference to the notional principal amount of $25,000 for each interest rate swap. These interest rate swaps were also accounted for as cash flow hedges. The rate on the portion of the Company's outstanding debt covered by these swaps will be fixed at a rate of 1.05% plus the Company's credit spread over the 2-year life of each swap.
Companies may elect whether or not to offset related assets and liabilities and report the net amount on their financial statements if the right of setoff exists. Under a master netting agreement, the Company has the legal right to offset the amounts owed to the Company against amounts owed by the Company under a derivative instrument that exists between the Company and a counterparty.
When the Company is engaged in more than one outstanding derivative transaction with the same counterparty and also has a legally enforceable master netting agreement with that counterparty, its credit risk exposure is based on the net exposure under the master netting agreement. If, on a net basis, the Company owes the counterparty, the Company regards its credit exposure to the counterparty as being zero.
The Company does not hold or use derivative instruments for trading purposes. The Company also does not have any derivatives not designated as hedging instruments and has not designated any non-derivatives as hedging instruments. See Note 6 for additional information on the Company's derivative and hedging activities.
Many of the food products purchased by the Company are affected by commodity pricing and are, therefore, subject to price volatility caused by market conditions, weather, production problems, delivery difficulties and other factors that are outside the control of the Company and generally are unpredictable. Changes in commodity prices affect the Company and its competitors generally and, depending on terms and duration of supply contracts, sometimes simultaneously. In many cases, the Company believes it will be able to pass through some or much of increased commodity costs by adjusting its menu pricing. From time to time, competitive circumstances or judgments about consumer acceptance of price increases may limit menu price flexibility, and in those circumstances, increases in commodity prices can result in lower margins for the Company.
Comprehensive income – Comprehensive income includes net income and the effective unrealized portion of the changes in the fair value of the Company's interest rate swaps.
Segment reporting – Operating segments are components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. Utilizing these criteria, the Company manages its business on the basis of one reportable operating segment (see Note 8).
Revenue recognition – The Company records revenue from the sale of products as they are sold. The Company provides for estimated returns based on return history and sales levels. The Company's policy is to present sales in the Consolidated Statements of Income on a net presentation basis after deducting sales tax.
Unredeemed gift cards and certificates – Unredeemed gift cards and certificates represent a liability of the Company related to unearned income and are recorded at their expected redemption value. No revenue is recognized in connection with the point-of-sale transaction when gift cards or gift certificates are sold. For those states that exempt gift cards and certificates from their escheat laws, the Company makes estimates of the ultimate unredeemed (“breakage”) gift cards and certificates in the period of the original sale and amortizes this breakage over the redemption period that other gift cards and certificates historically have been redeemed by reducing its liability and recording revenue accordingly. For those states that do not exempt gift cards and certificates from their escheat laws, the Company records breakage in the period that gift cards and certificates are remitted to the state and reduces its liability accordingly. Any amounts remitted to states under escheat or similar laws reduce the Company's deferred revenue liability and have no effect on revenue or expense while any amounts that the Company is permitted to retain are recorded as revenue. Changes in redemption behavior or management's judgments regarding redemption trends in the future may produce materially different amounts of deferred revenue to be reported.
Insurance – The Company self-insures a significant portion of its workers' compensation, general liability and health insurance programs. The Company purchases insurance for individual workers' compensation claims that exceed $250, $500 or $1,000 depending on the state in which the claim originates. The Company purchases insurance for individual general liability claims that exceed $500. Prior to January 1, 2009, the Company did not purchase such insurance for its group health program, but did limit its offered benefits for any individual (employee or dependents) in the program to not more than $1,000 lifetime, and, in certain cases, to not more than $100 in any given plan year. Beginning January 1, 2009, the Company split its group health program into two programs. The first program is fully insured and as such has no liability for unpaid claims. The second program is self-insured. For the Company's calendar 2009 plan, benefits for any individual (employee or dependents) in the self-insured program were limited to not more than $1,000 lifetime, $100 in any given plan year and, in certain cases, to not more than $15 in any given plan year. For the Company's calendar 2010 and 2011 plans, benefits for any individual (employee or dependents) in the self-insured program are limited to not more than $20 in any given year, and, in certain cases, to not more than $8 in given year. The Company records a liability for the self-insured portion of its group health program for all unpaid claims based upon a loss development analysis derived from actual group health claims payment experience.
The Company records a liability for workers' compensation and general liability for all unresolved claims and for an actuarially determined estimate of incurred but not reported claims at the anticipated cost to the Company based upon an actuarially determined reserve as of the end of the Company's third quarter and adjusts it by the actuarially determined losses and actual claims payments for the fourth quarter. The reserves and losses are determined actuarially from a range of possible outcomes within which no given estimate is more likely than any other estimate. As such, the Company records the losses at the lower end of that range and discounts them to present value using a risk-free interest rate based on actuarially projected timing of payments. The Company's accounting policies regarding insurance reserves include certain actuarial assumptions or management judgments regarding economic conditions, the frequency and severity of claims and claim development history and settlement practices. Unanticipated changes in these factors may produce materially different amounts of expense.
Store pre-opening costs – Start-up costs of a new store are expensed when incurred, with the exception of rent expense under operating leases, in which the straight-line rent includes the pre-opening period during construction, as explained further under the “Leases” section in this Note.
Leases – The Company's leases are classified as either capital or operating leases. The Company has ground leases and office space leases that are recorded as operating leases. A majority of the Company's lease agreements provide renewal options and some of these options contain rent escalation clauses. Additionally, some of the leases have rent holiday and contingent rent provisions. During rent holiday periods, which include the pre-opening period during construction, the Company has possession of and access to the property, but is not obligated to, and normally does not, make rent payments. Contingent rent is determined as a percentage of gross sales in excess of specified levels. The Company records a contingent rent liability and corresponding rent expense when it is probable sales have been achieved in amounts in excess of the specified levels.
The liabilities under these leases are recognized on the straight-line basis over the shorter of the useful life, with a maximum of 35 years, or the related lease life. The Company uses a lease life that generally begins on the date that the Company becomes legally obligated under the lease, including the rent holiday periods, and generally extends through certain renewal periods that can be exercised at the Company's option, for which at the inception of the lease, it is reasonably assured that the Company will exercise those renewal options. This lease period is consistent with the period over which leasehold improvements are amortized. The same lease life is used for reporting future minimum lease commitments as is used for the straight-line rent calculation.
The Company also leases its advertising billboards which are recorded as operating leases.
Advertising – The Company expenses the costs of producing advertising the first time the advertising takes place. Other advertising costs are expensed as incurred. Advertising expense was $48,889, $45,239 and $42,371 for 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.
Share-based compensation – Share-based compensation is recorded in general and administrative expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Income. Share-based compensation expense is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as expense over the requisite service period or to the date on which retirement eligibility is achieved, if shorter. If a share-based compensation award is modified after the grant date, incremental compensation expense is recognized in an amount equal to the excess of the fair value of the modified award over the fair value of the original award immediately before the modification. Incremental compensation expense for vested awards is recognized immediately. For unvested awards, the sum of the incremental compensation expense and the remaining unrecognized compensation expense for the original award on the modification date is recognized over the modified service period. The Company's policy is to recognize compensation expense for awards with only service conditions and a graded vesting schedule on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for the entire award. Additionally, the Company's policy is to issue new shares of common stock to satisfy exercises of share-based compensation awards.
At July 29, 2011, the Company has one active compensation plan for employees and non-employee directors which authorizes the granting of stock options, nonvested stock and other types of awards consistent with the purpose of the plan; the Company also has stock options and nonvested stock outstanding under four other compensation plans in which no future grants may be made (see Note 11). At July 29, 2011, the number of shares authorized for future issuance under the Company's active plan is 1,420,843.
Stock options are granted with an exercise price equal to the market price of the Company's stock on the grant date; those option awards generally vest at a cumulative rate of 33% per year beginning on the first anniversary of the grant date and expire ten years from the date of grant.
The fair value of each option award is estimated on the date of grant using a binomial lattice-based option valuation model, which incorporates ranges of assumptions for inputs as shown in the following table. The assumptions are as follows:
The expected volatility is a blend of implied volatility based on market-traded options on the Company's common stock and historical volatility of the Company's stock over the contractual life of the options.
The Company uses historical data to estimate option exercise and employee termination behavior within the valuation model; separate groups of employees that have similar historical exercise behavior are considered separately for valuation purposes. The expected life of options granted is derived from the output of the option valuation model and represents the period of time the options are expected to be outstanding.
The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant for periods within the contractual life of the option.
The expected dividend yield is based on the Company's current dividend yield as the best estimate of projected dividend yield for periods within the contractual life of the option.
Dividend yield range
43% - 61%
Risk-free interest rate range
Expected term (in years)
6.7 – 6.9
*Stock options granted in 2011 were defeased and replaced with performance-based stock units (“PBSUs”) (see Note 11).
In 2011, the Company began granting PBSUs. The number of PBSUs that will ultimately be earned and will vest is based on total shareholder return, which is defined as increases in the Company's stock price plus dividends paid during the performance period. The probability of the actual shares expected to be earned is considered in the grant date valuation; therefore, the expense will not be adjusted to reflect the actual units earned. The vesting of the PBSUs is also subject to the achievement of a specified level of operating income during the performance period. If this performance goal is not met, no PBSUs will be awarded and no compensation expense will be recorded.
The fair value of the PBSUs is determined using the Monte-Carlo simulation model, which simulates a range of possible future stock prices and estimates the probabilities of the potential payouts. This model incorporates several key assumptions that are similar to those used to value stock options. Those inputs include expected volatility, risk-free rate of return and expected dividend yield and are included in the following table. Additionally, for the PBSU's granted in 2011, the Monte-Carlo simulation model used the average prices for the 60-consecutive calendar days from July 1, 2010 to August 31, 2010.
| || |
| || |
July 29, 2011
| || || || |
Dividend yield range
| || ||1.6%|| |
| || ||43%|| |
Risk-free interest rate
| || ||0.8%|| |
Nonvested stock grants consist of the Company's common stock and generally vest over 2-5 years. All nonvested stock grants are time vested except the nonvested stock grants of one executive that are based upon the achievement of strategic goals. If any performance goals are not met, no compensation expense is ultimately recognized and, to the extent previously recognized, compensation expense is reversed.
Generally, the fair value of each nonvested stock grant is equal to the market price of the Company's stock at the date of grant reduced by the present value of expected dividends to be paid prior to the vesting period, discounted using an appropriate risk-free interest rate. Certain nonvested stock grants accrue dividends and their fair value is equal to the market price of the Company's stock at the date of the grant. Dividends are forfeited for any nonvested stock awards that do not vest.
Income taxes – The Company's provision for income taxes includes employer tax credits for FICA taxes paid on employee tip income and other employer tax credits are accounted for by the flow-through method. Deferred income taxes reflect the net tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes. The Company recognizes (or derecognizes) a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return in the financial statements when it is more likely than not (i.e., a likelihood of more than fifty percent) that the position would be sustained (or not sustained) upon examination by tax authorities. A recognized tax position is then measured at the largest amount of benefit that is greater than fifty percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. The Company recognizes, net of tax, interest and estimated penalties related to uncertain tax positions in its provision for income taxes. See Note 14 for additional information regarding income taxes.
Discontinued operations – The Company classifies the results of operations of a closed store as a discontinued operation when the operations and cash flows of the store have been or will be eliminated from ongoing operations, the Company no longer has any significant continuing involvement in the operations associated with the store after closure and the results are material to the Company's consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows. In determining whether the cash flows have been or will be eliminated from operations, the Company considers the proximity of the closed store to any remaining open stores in the geographic area to evaluate whether the Company will retain the closed store's customers at another store in the same market. Unless considered immaterial, if the Company determines that it has exited the market, then the closed store will be classified as a discontinued operation. No closed stores were classified as discontinued operations in 2011, 2010 and 2009. In 2009, certain expenses related to the 2007 sale of Logan's Roadhouse, Inc. were reported in discontinued operations.
Net income per share – Basic consolidated net income per share is computed by dividing consolidated net income to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the reporting period. Diluted consolidated net income per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities, options or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock and is based upon the weighted average number of common and common equivalent shares outstanding during the year. Common equivalent shares related to stock options and nonvested stock and stock awards issued by the Company are calculated using the treasury stock method. Outstanding employee and director stock options and nonvested stock and stock awards issued by the Company represent the only dilutive effects on diluted consolidated net income per share. See Note 15.
Use of estimates - Management of the Company has made certain estimates and assumptions relating to the reporting of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the Consolidated Financial Statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods to prepare these Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with GAAP. Management believes that such estimates have been based on reasonable and supportable assumptions and that the resulting estimates are reasonable for use in the preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements. Actual results, however, could differ from those estimates.
The Company has reclassified certain prior period amounts in its Consolidated Statements of Income in order to conform to the current period presentation in which impairment and store dispositions are not included in store operating income. The Company made this change in the third quarter of 2011. The Company believes that the current period presentation of store operating income more appropriately reflects the results of its ongoing store operations. These reclassifications had no effect on operating income or net income.
The following table presents the effect of these reclassifications on store operating income at:
| || |
| || |
| || || || || || || |
Store operating income as previously reported
| ||$||310,550|| || ||$||262,438|| |
Impairment and store dispositions, net
| || ||2,800|| || || ||2,088|| |
Store operating income as currently reported
| ||$||313,350|| || ||$||264,526|| |
The following table presents the effect of these reclassifications on store operating income for the quarters ended October 29, 2010 (“1st Quarter 2011”) and January 28, 2011 (“2nd Quarter 2011”):
| || |
1st Quarter 2011
| || |
2nd Quarter 2011
| || || || || || || |
Store operating income as previously reported
| ||$||82,292|| || ||$||85,540|| |
Impairment and store dispositions, net
| || ||83|| || || ||1|| |
Store operating income as currently reported
| ||$||82,375|| || ||$||85,541|| |
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
Fair Value Measurement and Disclosure Requirements
In May 2011, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued amended accounting guidance which provides additional guidance on how to determine fair value under existing standards and expands existing disclosure requirements on a prospective basis. The guidance is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2011. The Company does not expect that the adoption of this accounting guidance in the third quarter of 2012 will have a significant impact on its Consolidated Financial Statements.
Presentation of Comprehensive Income
In June 2011, the FASB issued amended accounting guidance which requires companies to present total comprehensive income and its components and the components of net income in either a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two consecutive statements reporting net income and comprehensive income. This requirement eliminates the option to present components of comprehensive income as part of the statement of changes in shareholders' equity. This guidance affects only the presentation of comprehensive income and does not change the components of comprehensive income. This guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2011 on a retrospective basis. The Company does not expect that the adoption of this accounting guidance in the first quarter of 2013 will have a significant impact on its Consolidated Financial Statements.