SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Business—Fortinet, Inc. (“Fortinet”) was incorporated in Delaware in November 2000 and is a leading provider of network security appliances and UTM network security solutions to enterprises, service providers and governmental entities worldwide. Fortinet’s solutions are designed to integrate multiple levels of security protection, including firewall, virtual private networking, application control, antivirus, intrusion prevention, web filtering, antispam and WAN acceleration.
Basis of Presentation and Preparation—The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Fortinet and its wholly owned subsidiaries (collectively, the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our”). All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. Beginning 2005 fiscal year, we adopted a 52- to 53-week year ending on the Sunday closest to December 31 of each year. Commencing in the third quarter of fiscal 2009, we began operating and reporting financial results on a calendar quarter and year basis. Our 2009 fiscal year ended on December 31, 2009. Fiscal 2011, 2010 and 2009 were comprised of 365 days, 365 days and 368 days, respectively.
Effective June 1, 2011, we completed a two-for-one stock split of our outstanding common shares in the form of a stock dividend. All shares and per share information referenced throughout the consolidated financial statements have been retroactively adjusted to reflect this stock split.
Use of Estimates—The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Such management estimates include implicit service periods for revenue recognition, litigation and settlement costs and other loss contingencies, sales returns and allowances, reserve for bad debt, inventory write-offs, reserve for warranty costs, valuation of deferred tax assets, and tangible and intangible assets. We base our estimates on historical experience and also on assumptions that we believe are reasonable. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Certain Significant Risks and Uncertainties—We are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could have a material adverse effect on our future financial position or results of operations, such as the following: changes in level of demand for our products and services, the timing and success of new product and service introductions by us or our competitors, price and sales competition and our ability to adapt to changing market conditions and dynamics such as changes in end-customer, distributor or reseller requirements or market needs, changes in expenses caused, for example, by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, management of inventory, internal control over financial reporting, market acceptance of our new products and services, demand for UTM products and services in general, seasonality, failure of our channel partners to perform or other disruption in our channel, the quality of our products and services and the market perception of our response to new viruses or security breaches, general economic conditions, challenges in doing business outside of the United States of America, changes in customer relationships, litigation, or claims against us based on intellectual property, patent, product regulatory or other factors (Note 9), product obsolescence, and our ability to attract and retain qualified employees.
We rely on sole suppliers and independent contract manufacturers for certain of our components and one third-party logistics company for certain distribution of our products. The inability of any of these parties to fulfill our supply and logistics requirements could negatively impact our future operating results.
Concentration of Credit Risk—Financial instruments that subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents, short-term investments, and accounts receivable. We maintain our cash and cash equivalents in fixed income securities with major financial institutions, which our management assesses to be of high credit quality, in order to limit the exposure of each investment. Deposits held with banks may exceed the amount of insurance provided on such deposits.
Credit risk with respect to accounts receivable in general is diversified due to the number of different entities comprising our customer base and their location throughout the world. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers and generally do not require collateral on accounts receivable. We maintain reserves for estimated potential credit losses.
At December 31, 2011 and December 31, 2010, no single customer accounted for more than 10% of net accounts receivable.
During fiscal 2011 and 2010, no single customer accounted for more than 10% of total net revenues. During fiscal 2009, one customer accounted for 12% of total net revenues.
Financial Instruments and Fair Value—We apply fair value accounting for all financial assets and liabilities and non-financial assets and liabilities that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a recurring basis. Due to their short-term nature, the carrying amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements approximate the fair value for accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued compensation, and other current liabilities.
Comprehensive Income (Loss)—ASC 220 establishes standards for the reporting and displaying of comprehensive income and its components. Comprehensive income includes certain changes in equity from non-owner sources that are excluded from net income. Specifically, cumulative foreign currency translation adjustments, unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale investments, and unrealized gains and losses on derivatives are included in comprehensive income in stockholders' equity.
Foreign Currency Translation—Assets and liabilities of foreign subsidiaries are translated into U.S. dollars using the exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet dates and revenue and expenses are translated using average exchange rates during the period. The resulting foreign translation adjustments are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). Foreign currency transaction gains (losses) of $(0.4) million, $(0.8) million and $0.1 million, are included in other income (expense), net for fiscal 2011, 2010 and 2009, respectively.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Available-for-sale Investments—We consider all highly liquid investments, purchased with original maturities of three months or less, to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on-hand, balances with banks, and highly liquid investments in money market funds, commercial paper, and certificates of deposit.
We classify our investments as available-for-sale at the time of purchase since it is our intent that these investments are available for current operations, and include these investments on our balance sheet as either short-term or long-term investments depending on their maturity at the time of purchase. Investments with original maturities greater than three months that mature less than one year from the consolidated balance sheet date are classified as short-term investments. Investments with maturities greater than one year from the consolidated balance sheet date are classified as long-term investments.
Investments are considered to be impaired when a decline in fair value is judged to be other-than-temporary. We consult with our investment managers and consider available quantitative and qualitative evidence in evaluating potential impairment of our investments on a quarterly basis. If the cost of an individual investment exceeds its fair value, we evaluate, among other factors, general market conditions, the duration and extent to which the fair value is less than cost, and our intent and ability to hold the investment. Once a decline in fair value is determined to be other-than-temporary, an impairment charge is recorded and a new cost basis in the investment is established.
For debt securities in an unrealized loss position which are deemed to be other-than-temporary, the difference between the security's then-current amortized cost basis and fair value is separated into (i) the amount of the impairment related to the credit loss (i.e., the credit loss component) and (ii) the amount of the impairment related to all other factors (i.e., the non-credit loss component). The credit loss component is recognized in earnings. The non-credit loss component is recognized in accumulated other comprehensive loss.
Inventory—Inventory is recorded at the lower of cost (using the first-in, first-out method) or market, after we give appropriate consideration to obsolescence and inventory in excess of anticipated future demand. In assessing the ultimate recoverability of inventory, we are required to make estimates regarding future customer demand, the timing of new product introductions, economic trends and market conditions. If the actual product demand is significantly lower than forecasted, we could be required to record additional inventory write-downs, which could have an adverse impact on our gross margins and profitability.
Deferred Cost of Revenues—Deferred cost of revenues represent the unamortized cost of products associated with services and ratable and other revenue, which is based upon the actual cost of the hardware sold and is recognized over the service periods of the arrangements. Deferred cost of revenue associated with short-term deferred revenue is classified as short-term and deferred cost of revenue associated with long-term deferred revenue is classified as long-term.
Property and Equipment—Property and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally one to three years. Evaluation units are transferred from inventory at cost and are amortized over one year from the date of transfer. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the estimated useful lives of the improvements or the lease term.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets—We evaluate events and changes in circumstances that could indicate carrying amounts of long-lived assets, including intangible assets, may not be recoverable. When such events or changes in circumstances occur, we assess the recoverability of long-lived assets by determining whether the carrying value of such assets will be recovered through undiscounted expected future cash flows. If the total of the future undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying amount of those assets, we record an impairment charge in the period in which we make the determination. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets.
Deferred Revenue—Deferred revenue consists of amounts that have been invoiced but that have not yet been recognized as revenue.
Income Taxes—We record income taxes using the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in our financial statements or tax returns. In estimating future tax consequences, generally all expected future events other than enactments or changes in the tax law or rates are considered. We assess the likelihood that some portion or all of our deferred tax assets will be recovered from future taxable income within the respective jurisdictions, and to the extent we believe that recovery does not meet the “more-likely-than-not” standard, based solely on its technical merits as of the reporting date, we establish a valuation allowance. We consider many factors when evaluating and estimating our tax positions and tax benefits, which may require periodic adjustments and which may not accurately anticipate actual outcomes.
We operate in various tax jurisdictions and are subject to audit by various tax authorities. We provide for tax contingencies whenever it is deemed more likely than not that a tax asset has been impaired or a tax liability has been incurred for events such as tax claims or changes in tax laws. Tax contingencies are based upon their technical merits, relevant tax law and the specific facts and circumstances as of each reporting period. Changes in facts and circumstances could result in material changes to the amounts recorded for such tax contingencies.
Stock-Based Compensation—We apply ASC 718 to our stock option grants and stock purchase rights, which requires compensation expense related to share-based transactions, including employee stock options and stock purchase rights under our ESPP, to be measured and recognized in the financial statements based on fair value. Under ASC 718, the fair value of each option award is estimated on the grant date using the Black-Scholes option pricing model.
Advertising Expense—Advertising costs are expensed when incurred and is included in operating expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. Our advertising expenses were not significant for any periods presented.
Research and Development Costs—Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.
Software Development Costs—The costs to develop software have not been capitalized as we believe our current software development process is essentially completed concurrent with the establishment of technological feasibility.
Revenue Recognition—In October 2009, the FASB amended the ASC as summarized in ASU No. 2009-13, Revenue Recognition (Topic 605): Multiple-Deliverable Revenue Arrangements, and ASU No. 2009-14, Software (Topic 985): Certain Revenue Arrangements That Include Software Elements. ASU 2009-13 amends the accounting for multiple-element arrangements to provide guidance on how the deliverables in an arrangement should be separated and eliminates the use of the residual method. ASU 2009-13 also requires an entity to allocate revenue using the relative selling price method. The standard establishes a hierarchy of evidence to determine the stand-alone selling price of a deliverable based on VSOE, TPE, and the BESP. If VSOE is available, it would be used to determine the selling price of a deliverable. If VSOE is not available, the entity would determine whether TPE is available. If so, TPE must be used to determine the selling price. If TPE is not available, then the BESP would be used. ASU 2009-14 amends industry specific revenue accounting guidance for software and software related transactions to exclude from its scope tangible products containing software components and non-software components that function together to deliver the product's essential functionality.
Effective January 1, 2011, we adopted the provisions of ASU 2009-13 and ASU 2009-14 for new and materially modified arrangements originating after December 31, 2010. The adoption of ASU 2009-13 and ASU 2009-14, increased revenues $20.0 million for fiscal 2011. The increase was primarily due to certain product revenue, which can now be recognized upon shipment, but would have been deferred under the previous revenue recognition rules. We expect the adoption of ASU 2009-13 and ASU 2009-14 to have an impact on future periods; however, we cannot reasonably estimate the effect of adopting these standards on future financial periods as the impact will vary depending on the nature and volume of new or materially modified arrangements in any given period.
This guidance does not generally change the units of accounting for our revenue transactions. Most non-software products and services qualify as separate units of accounting because they have value to the customer on a standalone basis and our revenue arrangements generally do not include a right of return relative to delivered products.
The majority of our products are hardware appliances containing software components that function together to provide the essential functionality of the product, therefore, our hardware appliances are considered non-software deliverables and are no longer within the scope of ASC 985-605.
Our product revenue also includes software products that may operate on the hardware appliances, but are not considered essential to the functionality of the hardware and continue to be subject to the guidance at ASC 985-605, which remains unchanged. This includes the use of the residual method for multiple element arrangements. Certain of our software, when sold with our appliances, is considered essential to its functionality and as a result is no longer accounted for under ASC 985-605; however, this same software if sold separately is accounted for under the guidance at ASC 985-605.
For all transactions originating or materially modified after December 31, 2010, we recognize revenue in accordance with ASU 2009-13. Certain arrangements with multiple deliverables may continue to have software deliverables that are subject to ASC 985-605 along with non-software deliverables that are subject to the ASU 2009-13. When a sales arrangement contains multiple elements, such as hardware appliances, software, customer support services, and/or professional services, we allocate revenue to each element based on the aforementioned selling price hierarchy. In multiple element arrangements where software is more-than-incidental, revenue is allocated to each separate unit of accounting for each of the non-software deliverables and to the software deliverables as a group using the relative selling prices of each of the deliverables in the arrangement based on the selling price hierarchy in ASU 2009-13.
VSOE of fair value for elements of an arrangement is based upon the normal pricing and discounting practices for those services when sold separately. In determining VSOE, we require that a substantial majority of the selling prices for a service fall within a reasonably narrow pricing range, generally evidenced by a substantial majority of such historical stand-alone transactions falling within a reasonably narrow range of the median rates. In addition, we consider major segments, geographies, customer classifications, and other variables in determining VSOE.
We are typically not able to determine TPE for our products or services. TPE is determined based on competitor prices for similar deliverables when sold separately. Generally, our go-to-market strategy differs from that of our peers and our offerings contain a significant level of differentiation such that the comparable pricing of products with similar functionality cannot be obtained. Furthermore, we are unable to reliably determine what similar competitor products' selling prices are on a stand-alone basis.
For our hardware appliances we use BESP as our selling price. For our support and services, we generally use VSOE as our selling price. When we are unable to establish a selling price using VSOE for our support and services, we use BESP in our allocation of arrangement consideration. The objective of BESP is to determine the price at which we would transact a sale if the product or service were sold on a stand-alone basis. We determine BESP for a product or service by considering multiple factors including, but not limited to, cost of products, gross margin objectives, pricing practices, geographies, customer classes and distribution channels. We review our BESP estimates on a quarterly basis to coincide with our VSOE review process.
We recognize revenue for our software sales based on software revenue recognition guidance pursuant to ASC 985-605. Under ASC 985-605, we use the residual method to recognize revenue when a product agreement includes one or more elements to be delivered and VSOE of fair value for all undelivered elements exists. If evidence of the fair value of one or more undelivered elements does not exist, all revenue is generally deferred and recognized when delivery of those elements occurs or when fair value can be established. When the undelivered element for which we do not have VSOE of fair value is support, revenue for the entire arrangement is recognized ratably over the support period.
We derive revenue from sales of products, including appliances and software, and services, including subscription, support and other services. Our appliances include operating system software that is integrated into the appliance hardware and is deemed essential to its functionality. As a result, we account for revenue in accordance with ASC 985-605 and all related interpretations.
Revenue is recognized when all of the following criteria have been met:
Persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists. Binding contracts or purchase orders are generally used to determine the existence of an arrangement.
Delivery has occurred. Delivery occurs when we fulfill an order and title and risk of loss has been transferred or upon delivery of the service contract registration code.
The fee is fixed or determinable. We assess whether the fee is fixed or determinable based on the payment terms associated with the transaction. In the event payment terms differ from our standard business practices, the fees are deemed to be not fixed or determinable and revenue is recognized when the payments become due, provided the remaining criteria for revenue recognition have been met.
Collectability is probable. We assess collectability based primarily on creditworthiness as determined by credit checks and analysis, as well as payment history. Payment terms generally range from 30 to 90 days from invoice date.
For arrangements which include end-customer acceptance criteria, revenue is recognized upon acceptance. We recognize product revenue on sales to distributors that have no general right of return and direct sales to end-customers upon shipment, once all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. We also recognize revenue upon sell-through for distributor agreements that allow for rights of return. Such returns are estimated and recorded as a reduction to revenue. Substantially all of our products have been sold in combination with services, which consist of subscriptions and/or support. Subscription services provide access to our antivirus, intrusion prevention, web filtering, and anti-spam functionality. Support services include rights to unspecified software upgrades, maintenance releases and patches, telephone and Internet access to technical support personnel, and hardware support.
The subscription and support services start on the date the customer registers the appliance. The customer is then entitled to service for the stated contractual period beginning on the registration date.
We offer certain sales incentives to channel partners. We reduce revenue for estimates of sales returns and allowances. Additionally, in limited circumstances we may permit end-customers, distributors and resellers to return our products, subject to varying limitations, for a refund within a reasonably short period from the date of purchase. We estimate and record reserves for sales incentives and sales returns based on historical experience.
Accounts Receivable—Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount, net of allowances for doubtful accounts and reserves for sales returns and allowances. The allowance for doubtful accounts is based on our assessment of the collectability of customer accounts. We regularly review the allowance by considering factors such as historical experience, credit quality, age of the accounts receivable balances and current economic conditions that may affect a customer's ability to pay. The reserve for sales returns and allowances is based on specific criteria including agreements to provide rebates and other factors known at the time, as well as estimates of the amount of goods shipped that will be returned. To determine the adequacy of the reserves for sales returns and allowances, we analyze historical experience of actual rebates and returns as well as current product return information.
Warranties—We generally provide a one-year warranty on hardware products and a 90-day warranty on software. A provision for estimated future costs related to warranty activities is recorded as a component of cost of product revenues when the product revenues are recognized, based upon historical product failure rates and historical costs incurred in correcting product failures. In the event we change our warranty reserve estimates, the resulting charge against future cost of sales or reversal of previously recorded charges may materially affect our gross margins and operating results.
Accrued warranty activities are summarized as follows ($ amounts in 000's):
Accrued warranty balance—beginning of the period
Warranty costs incurred
Provision for warranty for the year
Accruals related to changes in estimates
Accrued warranty balance—end of the period
Foreign Currency Derivatives—Our sales contracts are primarily denominated in U.S. dollars and therefore substantially all of our revenue is not subject to foreign currency translation risk. However, a substantial portion of our operating expenses incurred outside the U.S. are denominated in foreign currencies and are subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates, particularly changes in the CAD, EUR, GBP, and JPY. To help protect against significant fluctuations in value and the volatility of future cash flows caused by changes in currency exchange rates, we engage in foreign currency risk management activities to hedge balance sheet items denominated in EUR, GBP, and CAD. We do not use these contracts for speculative or trading purposes. All of the derivative instruments are with high quality financial institutions and we monitor the creditworthiness of these parties. These contracts typically have maturities between one and three months. We account for our hedges under ASC 815 Derivatives and Hedging. We record changes in the fair value of forward exchange contracts related to balance sheet accounts as other income (expense), net in the consolidated statement of operations.
Additionally, independent of any hedging activities, fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates may cause us to recognize transaction gains and losses in our consolidated statements of operations. Our hedging activities are intended to reduce, but not eliminate, the impact of currency exchange rate movements. As our hedging activities are relatively short-term in nature, long-term material changes in the value of the U.S. dollar versus the EUR, GBP, CAD or JPY could adversely impact our operating expenses in the future.
The notional amount of forward exchange contracts to hedge balance sheet accounts as of December 31, 2011 was (amounts in 000's):
To hedge balance sheet accounts:
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2011, the FASB issued ASU No. 2011-04, Amendments to Achieve Common Fair Value Measurement and Disclosure Requirements in U.S. GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards (Topic 820) – Fair Value Measurement (ASU 2011-04), to provide a consistent definition of fair value and ensure that the fair value measurement and disclosure requirements are similar between U.S. GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards. ASU 2011-04 changes certain fair value measurement principles and enhances the disclosure requirements particularly for Level 3 fair value measurements. This accounting update will be applicable to the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2012 and should be applied prospectively. The Company does not believe the adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In June 2011, the FASB issued ASU No. 2011-05, Comprehensive Income (Topic 220) - Presentation of Comprehensive Income (ASU 2011-05), to require an entity to present the total of comprehensive income, the components of net income, and the components of other comprehensive income either in a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two separate but consecutive statements. ASU 2011-05 eliminates the option to present the components of other comprehensive income as part of the statement of equity. This accounting update will be applicable to the Company beginning in the first quarter of fiscal year 2012.