Annual Report


Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 


FORM 10-K

 


 

x

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2016

OR

 

¨

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Transition Period From                  to                 

Commission File Number 001-37845

 


MICROSOFT CORPORATION

 


 

WASHINGTON   91-1144442
(STATE OF INCORPORATION)   (I.R.S. ID)

ONE MICROSOFT WAY, REDMOND, WASHINGTON 98052-6399

(425) 882-8080

www.microsoft.com/investor

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

COMMON STOCK, $0.00000625 par value per share                                          NASDAQ

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

NONE

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  x     No ¨

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.    Yes  ¨     No x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x     No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x     No ¨

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

x

  

Accelerated filer

 

¨

Non-accelerated filer

 

¨   (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

  

Smaller reporting company

 

¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨     No x

As of December 31, 2015, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $424.5 billion based on the closing sale price as reported on the NASDAQ National Market System. As of July 25, 2016, there were 7,792,515,573 shares of common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement to be delivered to shareholders in connection with the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on November 30, 2016 are incorporated by reference into Part III.

 


 



Table of Contents

 


MICROSOFT CORPORATION

FORM 10-K

For The Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2016

INDEX

 

             Page

 

PART I

                
   

Item 1.

 

Business

     3   
       

Executive Officers of the Registrant

     15   
   

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

     17   
   

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

     26   
   

Item 2.

 

Properties

     26   
   

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

     27   
   

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

     27   

PART II

                
   

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

     28   
   

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

     28   
   

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

     29   
   

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

     50   
   

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

     52   
   

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

     96   
   

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

     96   
       

Report of Management on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

     96   
       

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

     97   
   

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

     98   

PART III

                
   

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

     98   
   

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

     98   
   

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

     98   
   

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

     98   
   

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

     98   

PART IV

                
   

Item 15.

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

     99   
       

Signatures

     103   

 

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PART I

Item 1

 

Note About Forward-Looking Statements

This report includes estimates, projections, statements relating to our business plans, objectives, and expected operating results that are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Forward-looking statements may appear throughout this report, including the following sections: “Business,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis,” and “Risk Factors.” These forward-looking statements generally are identified by the words “believe,” “project,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “intend,” “strategy,” “future,” “opportunity,” “plan,” “may,” “should,” “will,” “would,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely result,” and similar expressions. Forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ materially. We describe risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially in “Risk Factors” (Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K), “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” (Part II, Item 7A of this Form 10-K), and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis” (Part II, Item 7 of this Form 10-K). We undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether because of new information, future events, or otherwise.

PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

GENERAL

Our vision

Microsoft is a technology company whose mission is to empower every person and every organization on the planet to achieve more. Our strategy is to build best-in-class platforms and productivity services for a mobile-first, cloud-first world.

The mobile-first, cloud-first world is transforming the way individuals and organizations use and interact with technology. Mobility is not focused on any one device; it is centered on the mobility of experiences that, in turn, are orchestrated by the cloud. Cloud computing and storage solutions provide people and enterprises with various capabilities to store and process their data in third-party datacenters. Mobility encompasses the rich collection of data, applications, and services that accompany our customers as they move from setting to setting in their lives. We are transforming our businesses to enable Microsoft to lead the direction of this digital transformation, and enable our customers and partners to thrive in this evolving world.

What we offer

Founded in 1975, we operate worldwide in over 190 countries. We develop, license, and support a wide range of software products, services, and devices that deliver new opportunities, greater convenience, and enhanced value to people’s lives.

Our products include operating systems; cross-device productivity applications; server applications; business solution applications; desktop and server management tools; software development tools; video games; and training and certification of computer system integrators and developers. We also design, manufacture, and sell devices, including PCs, tablets, gaming and entertainment consoles, phones, other intelligent devices, and related accessories, that integrate with our cloud-based offerings. We offer an array of services, including cloud-based solutions that provide customers with software, services, platforms, and content, and we provide solution support and consulting services. We also deliver relevant online advertising to a global audience.

The ambitions that drive us

To carry out our strategy, our research and development efforts focus on three interconnected ambitions:

 

   

Reinvent productivity and business processes.

 

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PART I

Item 1

 

   

Build the intelligent cloud platform.

 

   

Create more personal computing.

Reinvent productivity and business processes

We believe we can significantly enhance the lives of our customers using our broad portfolio of productivity, communication, and information services that span devices and platforms. Productivity will be the first and foremost objective, to enable people to meet and collaborate more easily, and to effectively express ideas in new ways. We invent new scenarios that in turn create opportunity for our partners and help businesses accelerate their transformation while respecting each person’s privacy choices. The foundation for these efforts will rest on advancing our leading productivity, collaboration, communication, and business process tools including Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, OneNote, OneDrive, Skype, and Microsoft Dynamics (“Dynamics”). With Office 365, we provide these familiar industry-leading productivity and business process tools as cloud services, enabling access from anywhere and any device. This creates an opportunity to reach new customers and expand the usage of our services by our existing customers. We see opportunity in combining our offerings in new ways that are mobile, collaborative, intelligent and trustworthy. We offer our services across platforms and devices outside our own. As people move from device to device, so will their content and the richness of their services. We engineer our applications so users can find, try, and buy them in friction-free ways.

Build the intelligent cloud platform

In deploying technology that advances business strategy, enterprises decide what solutions will make employees more productive, collaborative, and satisfied, and connect with customers in new and compelling ways. They work to unlock business insights from a world of data. To achieve these objectives, increasingly businesses look to leverage the benefits of the cloud. Helping businesses move to the cloud is one of our largest opportunities, and we believe we work from a position of strength. Microsoft is one of two leaders in the market.

The shift to the cloud is driven by three important economies of scale: larger datacenters can deploy computational resources at significantly lower cost per unit than smaller ones; larger datacenters can coordinate and aggregate diverse customer, geographic, and application demand patterns, improving the utilization of computing, storage, and network resources; and multi-tenancy lowers application maintenance labor costs for large public clouds. As one of the largest providers of cloud computing at scale, we are well-positioned to help businesses move to the cloud and focus on innovation while leaving non-differentiating activities to reliable and cost-effective providers like Microsoft.

We believe our server products and cloud services, which include Microsoft SQL Server (“SQL Server”), Windows Server, Visual Studio, System Center, and Microsoft Azure (“Azure”), make us the only company with a public, private, and hybrid cloud platform that can power modern business. With Azure, we are one of very few cloud vendors that run at a scale that meets the needs of businesses of all sizes and complexities. We are working to enhance the return on IT investment by enabling enterprises to combine their existing datacenters and our public cloud into a single cohesive infrastructure. Businesses can deploy applications in their own datacenter, a partner’s datacenter, or in our datacenters with common security, management, and administration across all environments, with the flexibility and scale they want.

We enable organizations to securely adopt software-as-a-service applications, both our own and third-party, and integrate them with their existing security and management infrastructure. We continue to innovate with higher-level services including identity and directory services that manage employee corporate identity and manage and secure corporate information accessed and stored across a growing number of devices, rich data storage and analytics services, machine learning services, media services, web and mobile backend services, and developer productivity services. To foster a rich developer ecosystem, our platform is extensible, enabling customers and partners to further customize and enhance our solutions, achieving even more value. This strategy requires continuing investment in datacenters and other infrastructure to support our services.

 

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PART I

Item 1

 

Create more personal computing

We strive to make computing more personal by putting users at the core of the experience, enabling them to interact with technology in more intuitive, engaging, and dynamic ways. A computing device should be not just a tool, but a partner. Windows 10 is the cornerstone of our ambition to usher in this era of more personal computing. We consider the launch of Windows 10 in July 2015 to be a transformative moment as we moved from an operating system that runs on a PC to a service that can power the full spectrum of devices. We developed Windows 10 not only to be familiar to our users, but more safe, secure, and always up-to-date. Windows 10 is more personal and productive with functionality such as Cortana, Windows Hello, Windows Ink, Microsoft Edge, and universal applications. Windows 10 is designed to foster innovation – from us, our partners, and developers – through rich and consistent experiences across the range of existing devices and entirely new device categories.

Our ambition for Windows 10 is to broaden our economic opportunity through three key levers: an original equipment manufacturer (“OEM”) ecosystem that creates exciting new hardware designs for Windows 10; our own commitment to the health and profitability of our first-party premium device portfolio; and monetization opportunities such as services, subscriptions, gaming, and search advertising. Our OEM partners are investing in an extensive portfolio of hardware designs and configurations for Windows 10. We now have the widest range of Windows hardware ever available.

With the unified Windows operating system, developers and OEMs can contribute to a thriving Windows ecosystem. We invest heavily to make Windows the most secure, manageable, and capable operating system for the needs of a modern workforce. We are working to create a broad developer opportunity by unifying the installed base to Windows 10 through upgrades and ongoing updates, and by enabling universal Windows applications to run across all device targets. As part of our strategic objectives, we are committed to designing and marketing first-party devices to help drive innovation, create new categories, and stimulate demand in the Windows ecosystem. We are developing new input/output methods within Windows 10, including speech, pen, gesture, and augmented reality holograms to power more personal computing experiences.

Our future opportunity

There are several distinct areas of technology that we aim to drive forward. Our goal is to lead the industry in these areas over the long-term, which we expect will translate to sustained growth. We are investing significant resources in:

 

   

Delivering new productivity and business processes to improve how people communicate, collaborate, learn, work, play, and interact with one another.

 

   

Building and running cloud-based services in ways that unleash new experiences and opportunities for businesses and individuals.

 

   

Establishing the Windows platform across servers and devices, both our own and third-party, and the cloud to drive a thriving ecosystem of developers, unify the cross-device user experience, and increase agility when bringing new advances to market.

 

   

Developing new devices that have increasingly natural ways to interact with them, including speech, pen, gesture, and augmented reality holograms.

 

   

Applying machine learning to make technology more intuitive and able to act on our behalf to understand and interpret our needs using natural methods of communication.

We believe the breadth of our products and services portfolio, our large global partner and customer base, our growing ecosystem, and our ongoing investment in innovation position us to be a leader in these areas and differentiate ourselves from competitors.

 

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PART I

Item 1

 

OPERATING SEGMENTS

Our segments provide management with a comprehensive financial view of our key businesses. The segments enable the alignment of strategies and objectives across the development, sales, marketing, and services organizations, and they provide a framework for timely and rational allocation of resources within businesses.

In June 2015, we announced a change in organizational structure to align to our strategic direction as a productivity and platform company. During the first quarter of fiscal year 2016, our chief operating decision maker, who is also our Chief Executive Officer, requested changes in the information that he regularly reviews for purposes of allocating resources and assessing performance. As a result, beginning in fiscal year 2016, we report our financial performance based on our new segments, Productivity and Business Processes, Intelligent Cloud, and More Personal Computing.

Additional information on our operating segments and geographic and product information is contained in Note 21 – Segment Information and Geographic Data of the Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K).

Our reportable segments are described below.

Productivity and Business Processes

Our Productivity and Business Processes segment consists of products and services in our portfolio of productivity, communication, and information services, spanning a variety of devices and platforms. This segment primarily comprises:

 

   

Office Commercial, including volume licensing and subscriptions to Office 365 commercial for products and services such as Office, Exchange, SharePoint, and Skype for Business, and related Client Access Licenses (“CALs”).

 

   

Office Consumer, including Office sold through retail or through an Office 365 consumer subscription, and Office Consumer Services, including Skype, Outlook.com, and OneDrive.

 

   

Dynamics business solutions, including Dynamics ERP products, Dynamics CRM on-premises, and Dynamics CRM Online.

Office Commercial

Office Commercial is designed to increase personal, team, and organizational productivity through a range of products and services. Growth depends on our ability to reach new users, add value to our core product set, and continue to expand our product and service offerings into new markets such as security, analytics, collaboration, unified communications, and business intelligence. Office Commercial revenue is mainly affected by a combination of the demand from commercial customers for volume licensing and Software Assurance and the number of information workers in an enterprise, as well as the continued shift to Office 365. Office 365 is our cloud-based service that provides access to Office plus other productivity services. CALs provide access rights to certain Office Commercial products and services, including Exchange, SharePoint, and Skype for Business, and revenue is reported along with the associated Office products and services.

Office Consumer

Office Consumer is designed to increase personal productivity through a range of products and services. Growth depends on our ability to reach new users, add value to our core product set, and continue to expand our product and service offerings into new markets. Office Consumer revenue is mainly affected by the combination of customers that buy Office with their new devices and the continued shift to Office 365. Office Consumer Services revenue is mainly affected by the demand for communication and storage through Skype, Outlook.com, and OneDrive, which is largely driven by subscriptions, advertising, and the sale of minutes. Skype is designed to connect friends, family, clients, and colleagues through a variety of devices.

 

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PART I

Item 1

 

Dynamics

Dynamics provides business solutions for financial management, customer relationship management (“CRM”), supply chain management, and analytics applications for small and mid-size businesses, large organizations, and divisions of global enterprises. Dynamics revenue is largely driven by the number of information workers licensed.

Competition

Competitors to Office include software and global application vendors such as Adobe Systems, Apple, Cisco Systems, Facebook, Google, IBM, Oracle, SAP, and numerous web-based and mobile application competitors as well as local application developers in Asia and Europe. Cisco Systems is using its position in enterprise communications equipment to grow its unified communications business. Google provides a hosted messaging and productivity suite. Apple distributes versions of its pre-installed application software, such as email, note-taking, and calendar products, through its PCs, tablets, and phones. Skype for Business and Skype also compete with a variety of instant messaging, voice, and video communication providers, ranging from start-ups to established enterprises. Web-based offerings competing with individual applications have also positioned themselves as alternatives to our products. We believe our products compete effectively based on our strategy of providing powerful, flexible, secure, and easy-to-use solutions that work well with technologies our customers already have and are available on a device or via the cloud.

Our Dynamics products compete with vendors such as Oracle and SAP in the market for large organizations and divisions of global enterprises. In the market focused on providing solutions for small and mid-sized businesses, our Dynamics products compete with vendors such as Infor, The Sage Group, and NetSuite. Salesforce.com’s cloud CRM offerings compete directly with our Dynamics CRM on-premises and CRM Online offerings.

Intelligent Cloud

Our Intelligent Cloud segment consists of our public, private, and hybrid server products and cloud services that can power modern business. This segment primarily comprises:

 

   

Server products and cloud services, including SQL Server, Windows Server, Visual Studio, System Center, and related CALs, as well as Azure.

 

   

Enterprise Services, including Premier Support Services and Microsoft Consulting Services.

Server Products and Cloud Services

Our server products are designed to make IT professionals, developers, and their systems more productive and efficient. Server software is integrated server infrastructure and middleware designed to support software applications built on the Windows Server operating system. This includes the server platform, database, business intelligence, storage, management and operations, virtualization, service-oriented architecture platform, security, and identity software. We also license standalone and software development lifecycle tools for software architects, developers, testers, and project managers. Server products and cloud services revenue is mainly affected by purchases through volume licensing programs, licenses sold to OEMs, and retail packaged products. CALs provide access rights to certain server products, including SQL Server and Windows Server, and revenue is reported along with the associated server product.

Azure is a scalable cloud platform with computing, networking, storage, database, and management, along with advanced services such as analytics, and comprehensive solutions such as Enterprise Mobility Suite. Azure includes a flexible platform that helps developers build, deploy, and manage enterprise, mobile, web, and Internet of Things applications, for any platform or device without having to worry about the underlying infrastructure. Azure enables customers to devote more resources to development and use of applications that benefit their organizations, rather than managing on-premises hardware and software.

 

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PART I

Item 1

 

Enterprise Services

Enterprise Services, including Premier Support Services and Microsoft Consulting Services, assist customers in developing, deploying, and managing Microsoft server and desktop solutions and provide training and certification to developers and IT professionals on various Microsoft products.

Competition

Our server products face competition from a wide variety of server operating systems and applications offered by companies with a range of market approaches. Vertically integrated computer manufacturers such as Hewlett-Packard, IBM, and Oracle offer their own versions of the Unix operating system preinstalled on server hardware. Nearly all computer manufacturers offer server hardware for the Linux operating system and many contribute to Linux operating system development. The competitive position of Linux has also benefited from the large number of compatible applications now produced by many commercial and non-commercial software developers. A number of companies, such as Red Hat, supply versions of Linux.

We compete to provide enterprise-wide computing solutions and point solutions with numerous commercial software vendors that offer solutions and middleware technology platforms, software applications for connectivity (both Internet and intranet), security, hosting, database, and e-business servers. IBM and Oracle lead a group of companies focused on the Java Platform Enterprise Edition that competes with our enterprise-wide computing solutions. Commercial competitors for our server applications for PC-based distributed client/server environments include CA Technologies, IBM, and Oracle. Our web application platform software competes with open source software such as Apache, Linux, MySQL, and PHP. In middleware, we compete against Java vendors.

Our database, business intelligence, and data warehousing solutions offerings compete with products from IBM, Oracle, SAP, and other companies. Our system management solutions compete with server management and server virtualization platform providers, such as BMC, CA Technologies, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, and VMware. Our products for software developers compete against offerings from Adobe, IBM, Oracle, other companies, and open-source projects, including Eclipse (sponsored by CA Technologies, IBM, Oracle, and SAP), PHP, and Ruby on Rails, among others.

We believe our server products provide customers with advantages in performance, total costs of ownership, and productivity by delivering superior applications, development tools, compatibility with a broad base of hardware and software applications, security, and manageability.

Azure faces diverse competition from companies such as Amazon, Google, IBM, Oracle, Salesforce.com, VMware, and open source offerings. Azure’s competitive advantage includes enabling a hybrid cloud, allowing deployment of existing datacenters with our public cloud into a single, cohesive infrastructure, and the ability to run at a scale that meets the needs of businesses of all sizes and complexities.

Our Enterprise Services business competes with a wide range of companies that provide strategy and business planning, application development, and infrastructure services, including multinational consulting firms and small niche businesses focused on specific technologies.

More Personal Computing

Our More Personal Computing segment consists of products and services geared towards harmonizing the interests of end users, developers, and IT professionals across screens of all sizes. This segment primarily comprises:

 

   

Windows, including Windows OEM licensing (“Windows OEM”) and other non-volume licensing of the Windows operating system, volume licensing of the Windows operating system, patent licensing, Windows Embedded, MSN display advertising, and Windows Phone licensing.

 

   

Devices, including Microsoft Surface (“Surface”), phones, and PC accessories.

 

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PART I

Item 1

 

   

Gaming, including Xbox hardware; Xbox Live, comprising transactions, subscriptions, and advertising; video games; and third-party video game royalties.

 

   

Search advertising.

Windows

The Windows operating system is designed to deliver a more personal computing experience for users by enabling consistency of experience, applications, and information across their devices. We consider the launch of Windows 10 in July 2015 to be a transformative moment as we moved from an operating system that runs on a PC to a service that can power the full spectrum of devices.

Windows revenue is impacted significantly by the number of Windows operating system licenses purchased by OEMs, which they pre-install on the devices they sell. In addition to computing device market volume, Windows revenue is impacted by:

 

   

The mix of computing devices based on form factor and screen size.

 

   

Differences in device market demand between developed markets and emerging markets.

 

   

Attachment of Windows to devices shipped.

 

   

Customer mix between consumer, small- and medium-sized businesses, and large enterprises.

 

   

Changes in inventory levels in the OEM channel.

 

   

Pricing changes and promotions, pricing variation that occurs when the mix of devices manufactured shifts from local and regional system builders to large multinational OEMs, and different pricing of Windows versions licensed.

 

   

Piracy.

Volume licensing of the Windows operating system is affected mainly by the demand from commercial customers for volume licensing and Software Assurance, often reflecting the number of information workers in a licensed enterprise, and is therefore relatively independent of the number of PCs sold in a given year.

Patent licensing includes our programs to license patents across a broad array of technology areas, including mobile devices and cloud offerings.

Windows Embedded extends the power of Windows and the cloud to intelligent systems by delivering specialized operating systems, tools, and services.

Display advertising primarily includes MSN ads. In June 2015, we entered into agreements with AOL and AppNexus to outsource our display sales responsibility.

The Windows Phone operating system is designed to bring users closer to the people, applications, and content they need. Prior to our acquisition of Nokia Corporation’s (“Nokia”) Devices and Services business (“NDS”) in April 2014, Microsoft and Nokia jointly created new mobile products and services and extended established products and services to new markets through a strategic alliance.

Devices

We design, manufacture, and sell devices such as Surface, phones, and other intelligent devices, as well as PC accessories. Our devices are designed to enable people and organizations to connect to the people and content that matter most using integrated Microsoft services and Windows. Surface is designed to help organizations, students, and consumers to be more productive. Our latest Surface devices, the Surface Pro 4 and Surface Book, were released in October 2015. We began manufacturing and selling Microsoft Lumia (“Lumia”) phones and other phones with the acquisition of NDS in April 2014. In July 2015, we announced a plan to restructure our phone business to better focus and align resources. In May 2016, we announced plans to further streamline our smartphone hardware business. We also recently announced the sale of our entry-level feature phone business in May 2016. The transaction is expected to close in the second half of 2016, subject to regulatory approvals and other closing conditions.

 

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PART I

Item 1

 

Gaming

Our gaming platform is designed to provide a unique variety of entertainment through the use of our devices, peripherals, applications, online services, and content. We released Xbox 360 and Xbox One in November 2005 and November 2013, respectively, and recently announced Xbox One S will be released in August 2016. We also launched our Windows 10 Xbox app in July 2015. Xbox Live enables people to connect and share online gaming experiences and is accessible on Xbox consoles, Windows-enabled devices, and other devices. Xbox Live services consist of subscriptions and sales of Xbox Live enabled content, as well as advertising, and are designed to benefit users by providing access to a network of certified applications and services and to benefit our developer and partner ecosystems by providing access to a large customer base. We also design and sell gaming content to showcase our unique platform capabilities for Xbox consoles, Windows-enabled devices, and other devices. We acquired Mojang Synergies AB, the Swedish video game developer of the Minecraft gaming franchise, in November 2014. The addition of Minecraft and its community enhances our gaming portfolio across Windows, Xbox, and other ecosystems besides our own. We believe the success of our gaming business is determined by the overall active user base through Xbox Live enabled content, availability of games, providing exclusive game content that gamers seek, the computational power and reliability of the devices used to access our content and services, and the ability to create new experiences via online services, downloadable content, and peripherals.

Search Advertising

Search advertising, including Bing and Bing Ads, is designed to deliver relevant online advertising to a global audience. We have several partnerships with other companies, including Yahoo!, in which we provide and monetize search results. Growth depends on our ability to attract new users, understand intent, and match intent with relevant content and advertiser offerings.

Competition

The Windows operating system faces competition from various software products and from alternative platforms and devices, mainly from Apple and Google. We believe Windows competes effectively by giving customers choice, value, flexibility, security, an easy-to-use interface, and compatibility with a broad range of hardware and software applications, including those that enable productivity.

Our devices face competition from various computer, tablet, hardware, and phone manufacturers, and offer a unique combination of high-quality industrial design and innovative technologies across various price points, many of which are also current or potential partners and customers. These manufacturers include Apple, as well as our Windows OEM partners.

Our gaming platform competes with console platforms from Sony and Nintendo, both of which have a large, established base of customers. The lifecycle for gaming and entertainment consoles averages five to ten years. Nintendo released their latest generation console in November 2012. Sony released their latest generation console in November 2013.

In addition to Sony and Nintendo, we compete with other providers of entertainment services through online marketplaces. We believe our gaming platform is effectively positioned against competitive products and services based on significant innovation in hardware architecture, user interface, developer tools, online gaming and entertainment services, and continued strong exclusive content from our own game franchises as well as other digital content offerings. Our video games competitors include Electronic Arts and Activision Blizzard. Xbox Live faces competition from various online marketplaces, including those operated by Amazon, Apple, and Google.

Our search advertising business competes with Google and a wide array of websites, social platforms like Facebook, and portals that provide content and online offerings to end users.

 

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PART I

Item 1

 

OPERATIONS

We have operations centers that support all operations in their regions, including customer contract and order processing, credit and collections, information processing, and vendor management and logistics. The regional center in Ireland supports the European, Middle Eastern, and African region; the center in Singapore supports the Japan, India, Greater China, and Asia-Pacific region; and the centers in Fargo, North Dakota, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Puerto Rico, Redmond, Washington, and Reno, Nevada support Latin America and North America. In addition to the operations centers, we also operate datacenters throughout the Americas, Australia, Europe, and Asia.

To serve the needs of customers around the world and to improve the quality and usability of products in international markets, we localize many of our products to reflect local languages and conventions. Localizing a product may require modifying the user interface, altering dialog boxes, and translating text.

We operate manufacturing facilities for the production and customization of phones, predominantly in Vietnam. We announced the sale of our entry-level feature phone business in May 2016, which includes the sale of our phone manufacturing facility in Vietnam.

Our devices, other than phones, are primarily manufactured by third-party contract manufacturers. We generally have the ability to use other manufacturers if a current vendor becomes unavailable or unable to meet our requirements.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

During fiscal years 2016, 2015, and 2014, research and development expense was $12.0 billion, $12.0 billion, and $11.4 billion, respectively. These amounts represented 14%, 13%, and 13% of revenue in fiscal years 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively. We plan to continue to make significant investments in a broad range of research and development efforts.

Product and Service Development, and Intellectual Property

We develop most of our products and services internally through three engineering groups.

 

   

Applications and Services Engineering Group , focuses on broad applications and services core technologies in productivity, communication, education, search, and other information categories.

 

   

Cloud and Enterprise Engineering Group , focuses on our cloud infrastructure, server, database, CRM, enterprise resource planning, management, development tools, and other business process applications and services for enterprises.

 

   

Windows and Devices Engineering Group , focuses on our Windows platform across devices of all types, hardware development of our devices, and associated online marketplaces.

Internal development allows us to maintain competitive advantages that come from product differentiation and closer technical control over our products and services. It also gives us the freedom to decide which modifications and enhancements are most important and when they should be implemented. We strive to obtain information as early as possible about changing usage patterns and hardware advances that may affect software design. Before releasing new software platforms, we provide application vendors with a range of resources and guidelines for development, training, and testing. Generally, we also create product documentation internally.

We protect our intellectual property investments in a variety of ways. We work actively in the U.S. and internationally to ensure the enforcement of copyright, trademark, trade secret, and other protections that apply to our software and hardware products, services, business plans, and branding. We are a leader among technology companies in pursuing patents and currently have a portfolio of over 61,000 U.S. and international patents issued and over 35,000

 

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pending. While we employ much of our internally developed intellectual property exclusively in Microsoft products and services, we also engage in outbound and inbound licensing of specific patented technologies that are incorporated into licensees’ or Microsoft’s products. From time to time, we enter into broader cross-license agreements with other technology companies covering entire groups of patents. We also purchase or license technology that we incorporate into our products or services. At times, we make select intellectual property broadly available at no or low cost to achieve a strategic objective, such as promoting industry standards, advancing interoperability, or attracting and enabling our external development community.

While it may be necessary in the future to seek or renew licenses relating to various aspects of our products and business methods, we believe, based upon past experience and industry practice, such licenses generally could be obtained on commercially reasonable terms. We believe our continuing research and product development are not materially dependent on any single license or other agreement with a third party relating to the development of our products.

Investing in the Future

Microsoft’s success is based on our ability to create new and compelling products, services, and experiences for our users, to initiate and embrace disruptive technology trends, to enter new geographic and product markets, and to drive broad adoption of our products and services. We invest in a range of emerging technology trends and breakthroughs that we believe offer significant opportunities to deliver value to our customers and growth for the company. Based on our assessment of key technology trends, we maintain our long-term commitment to research and development across a wide spectrum of technologies, tools, and platforms spanning digital work and life experiences, cloud computing, and devices operating systems and hardware.

While our main research and development facilities are located in Redmond, Washington, we also operate research and development facilities in other parts of the U.S. and around the world, including Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, India, Ireland, Israel, Japan, and the United Kingdom. This global approach helps us remain competitive in local markets and enables us to continue to attract top talent from across the world. We generally fund research at the corporate level to ensure that we are looking beyond immediate product considerations to opportunities further in the future. We also fund research and development activities at the business segment level. Much of our business segment level research and development is coordinated with other segments and leveraged across the company.

In addition to our main research and development operations, we also operate Microsoft Research. Microsoft Research is one of the world’s largest computer science research organizations, and works in close collaboration with top universities around the world to advance the state-of-the-art in computer science, providing us a unique perspective on future technology trends and contributing to our innovation.

DISTRIBUTION, SALES, AND MARKETING

We market and distribute our products and services through the following channels: OEMs, distributors and resellers, online, and Microsoft retail stores. Our sales force performs a variety of functions, including working directly with enterprises and public sector organizations worldwide to identify and meet their software requirements; managing OEM relationships; and supporting solution integrators, independent software vendors, and other partners who engage directly with our customers to perform sales, consulting, and fulfillment functions for our products.

OEMs

We distribute software through OEMs that pre-install our software on new devices and servers they sell. The largest component of the OEM business is the Windows operating system pre-installed on computing devices. OEMs also sell hardware pre-installed with other Microsoft products, including server and embedded operating systems and applications such as our Microsoft Office suite. In addition to these products, we also market our services through OEMs and service bundles such as Windows with Bing or Windows with Office 365 subscription.

 

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There are two broad categories of OEMs. The largest OEMs, many of which operate globally, are referred to as “Direct OEMs,” as our relationship with them is managed through a direct agreement between Microsoft and the OEM. We have distribution agreements covering one or more of our products with virtually all of the multinational OEMs, including Acer, ASUST, Dell, Fujitsu, Hewlett-Packard, Lenovo, Samsung, Toshiba, and with many regional and local OEMs. The second broad category of OEMs consists of lower-volume PC manufacturers (also called “system builders”), which source their Microsoft software for pre-installation and local redistribution primarily through the Microsoft distributor channel rather than through a direct agreement or relationship with Microsoft.

Distributors and Resellers

Many organizations that license our products and services through Enterprise Agreements transact directly with us, with sales support from solution integrators, independent software vendors, web agencies, and developers that advise organizations on licensing our products and services (“Enterprise Agreement Software Advisors”, or “ESAs”). Organizations also license our products and services indirectly, primarily through licensing solution partners (“LSPs”), distributors, value-added resellers (“VARs”), OEMs, system builder channels, and retailers. Although each type of reselling partner reaches organizations of all sizes, LSPs are primarily engaged with large organizations, distributors resell primarily to VARs, and VARs typically reach small- and medium-sized organizations. ESAs typically are also authorized as LSPs and operate as resellers for our other licensing programs, such as the Select Plus and Open licensing programs discussed under “Licensing Options” below. Some of our distributors include Ingram Micro and Tech Data, and some of our largest resellers include CDW, Dell, Insight Enterprises, and Software House International.

Our Dynamics software offerings are also licensed to enterprises through a global network of channel partners providing vertical solutions and specialized services. We distribute our retail packaged products primarily through independent non-exclusive distributors, authorized replicators, resellers, and retail outlets. Individual consumers obtain these products primarily through retail outlets, including Microsoft retail stores. We distribute our devices through third-party retailers and Microsoft retail stores. Our phones are also distributed through global wireless communications carriers. We have a network of field sales representatives and field support personnel that solicit orders from distributors and resellers, and provide product training and sales support.

Online

Although on-premises software continues to be an important part of our business, increasingly we are delivering additional value to customers through cloud-based services. We provide commercial cloud-based solutions such as Office 365, Azure, and Dynamics CRM Online. We also provide online content services to consumers through Bing, MSN portals and channels, Office 365, Xbox Live, Outlook.com, OneDrive, Skype, and Windows Store. Other services delivered online include our online advertising platform with offerings for advertisers and publishers, as well as Microsoft Developer Network subscription content and updates, periodic product updates, and online technical and practice readiness resources to support our partners in developing and selling our products and solutions. As we increasingly deliver online services, we sell many of these cloud-based services through our enterprise agreements and have also enabled new sales programs to reach small and medium-sized businesses. These programs include direct sales, direct sales supported by a large network of partner advisors, and resale of services through operator channels, such as telephone, cell, and cable providers.

We also sell our products through our Microsoft retail stores and online marketplaces.

LICENSING OPTIONS

We license software to organizations under agreements that allow the customer to acquire multiple licenses of products and services. Our agreements for organizations to acquire multiple licenses of products and services are designed to provide them with a means of doing so without having to acquire separate licenses through retail channels. In delivering organizational licensing agreements to the market, we use different programs designed to provide flexibility for organizations of various sizes. While these programs may differ in various parts of the world, generally they include those discussed below.

 

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Customer Licensing Programs

Enterprise Agreement Licensing

Designed primarily for medium- and large-sized organizations that want to obtain the best value by standardizing on a common IT platform across their organization. Under the Enterprise Agreement, customers can acquire licenses for online services and/or software products with Software Assurance, which convey rights to future versions of certain software products over the contract period. Software Assurance also provides support, tools, and training to help customers deploy and use software efficiently. Enterprises can elect to acquire perpetual licenses or, under the Enterprise Subscription option, can acquire non-perpetual, subscription licenses for a specified period (generally three years). Online services are also available, and subscriptions are generally structured with three-year terms.

Microsoft Product and Services Agreement Licensing

Suited for medium- and large-sized organizations, the Microsoft Products and Services Agreement (“MPSA”) provides customers the ability to purchase online services subscriptions, software licenses, software licenses with Software Assurance, and renewals of Software Assurance through a single agreement. Software Assurance and online services subscriptions are generally available for a term of up to three years. We plan on expanding the offers under the MPSA in fiscal year 2017 to better enable organizations to obtain the best value by standardizing on a common IT platform across their organization.

Select Plus Licensing

Designed primarily for medium- and large-sized organizations, the Select Plus program allows customers to acquire perpetual licenses and, at the customer’s election, Software Assurance over a specified time period (generally three years or less). Similar to Open programs, the Select Plus program allows customers to acquire licenses only, acquire licenses with Software Assurance, or renew Software Assurance upon the expiration of existing volume licensing agreements. A subset of online services is also available for purchase through the Select Plus program, and subscriptions are generally structured with terms between one and three years.

In July 2014, we announced the retirement over a two-year period of Select Plus agreements for commercial customers, in favor of modern licensing options. Beginning July 2015, no new Select Plus agreements were signed with commercial organizations, and customers who want to purchase licenses were encouraged to transition to the MPSA. Starting in July 2016, we will no longer be accepting orders from commercial organizations for Select Plus after their next agreement anniversary. We expect the entire Select Plus business to transition to the MPSA within a few years.

Open Licensing

Designed primarily for small- and medium-sized organizations, the Open programs allow customers to acquire perpetual or subscription licenses and, at the customer’s election, rights to future versions of software products over a specified time period (generally two or three years depending on the specific programs used). The Open programs have several variations to fit customers’ diverse ways of purchasing. Under the Open License program, customers can acquire licenses only or licenses with Software Assurance, and/or renew Software Assurance upon the expiration of other existing volume licensing agreements. Under the Open Value and Open Value Subscription programs, customers can acquire perpetual or subscription licenses, respectively, over a three-year period. Online services are available in each of the Open programs.

Customer Licensing Programs — Online Services Only

Microsoft Online Subscription Agreement is designed to enable small and medium-sized businesses to easily purchase Microsoft Online Services. The program allows customers to acquire monthly or annual subscriptions for cloud-based services.

 

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Partner Programs

The Microsoft Cloud Solution Provider program enables partners to directly manage their entire Microsoft cloud customer lifecycle. Partners in this program use dedicated tools to directly provision, manage, and support their customer subscriptions. Partners can easily package their own tools, products, and services, and combine them into one monthly or annual customer bill.

The Microsoft Services Provider License Agreement is a program targeted at service providers and independent software vendors allowing these partners to provide software services and hosted applications to their end customers. Agreements are generally structured with a three-year term, and partners are billed monthly based upon consumption.

The Microsoft Online Services Reseller Agreement is a program that enables partners to package Microsoft online services with the partners’ services.

The Independent Software Vendor Royalty program enables partners to use Microsoft software in their own software programs.

CUSTOMERS

Our customers include individual consumers, small- and medium-sized organizations, large global enterprises, public sector institutions, Internet service providers, application developers, and OEMs. No sales to an individual customer accounted for more than 10% of revenue in fiscal years 2016, 2015, or 2014. Our practice is to ship our products promptly upon receipt of purchase orders from customers; consequently, backlog is not significant.

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANT

Our executive officers as of July 28, 2016 were as follows:

 

Name    Age      Position with the Company

Satya Nadella

     48       Chief Executive Officer

Christopher C. Capossela

     46       Executive Vice President, Chief Marketing Officer

Jean-Philippe Courtois

     55       Executive Vice President and President, Microsoft Global Sales, Marketing and Operations

Kathleen T. Hogan

     50       Executive Vice President, Human Resources

Amy E. Hood

     44       Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer

Margaret L. Johnson

     54       Executive Vice President, Business Development

Bradford L. Smith

     57       President and Chief Legal Officer

Mr. Nadella was appointed Chief Executive Officer in February 2014. He served as Executive Vice President, Cloud and Enterprise since July 2013. From 2011 to 2013, Mr. Nadella served as President, Server and Tools. From 2009 to 2011, he was Senior Vice President, Online Services Division. From 2008 to 2009, he was Senior Vice President, Search, Portal, and Advertising. Since joining Microsoft in 1992, Mr. Nadella’s roles also included Vice President of the Business Division.

Mr. Capossela was appointed Executive Vice President, Chief Marketing Officer in March 2014. Previously, he served as the worldwide leader of the Consumer Channels Group, responsible for sales and marketing activities with OEMs, operators, and retail partners. In his more than 20 years at Microsoft, Mr. Capossela has held a variety of marketing leadership roles in the Microsoft Office Division. He was responsible for marketing productivity solutions including Microsoft Office, Office 365, SharePoint, Exchange, Skype for Business, Project, and Visio.

Mr. Courtois was named Executive Vice President and President, Microsoft Global Sales, Marketing and Operations in July 2016. Before that he was President of Microsoft International since June 2005. He had been Chief Executive Officer, Microsoft Europe, Middle East, and Africa since March 2003. Previous to that, he had been Senior Vice

 

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President and President, Microsoft Europe, Middle East, and Africa since July 2000. Before holding that position, he had been Corporate Vice President, Worldwide Customer Marketing since July 1998. Mr. Courtois joined Microsoft in 1984. He also serves on the Board of Directors of AstraZeneca PLC.

Ms. Hogan was appointed Executive Vice President, Human Resources in November 2014. Prior to that Ms. Hogan was Corporate Vice President of Microsoft Services. She also served as Corporate Vice President of Customer Service and Support. Ms. Hogan joined Microsoft in 2003.

Ms. Hood was appointed Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer in July 2013, subsequent to her appointment as Chief Financial Officer in May 2013. Beginning in 2010, Ms. Hood was Chief Financial Officer of the Microsoft Business Division. From 2006 through 2009, Ms. Hood was General Manager, Microsoft Business Division Strategy. Since joining Microsoft in 2002, Ms. Hood has also held finance-related positions in the Server and Tools Business and the corporate finance organization.

Ms. Johnson was appointed Executive Vice President, Business Development in September 2014. Prior to that Ms. Johnson spent 24 years at Qualcomm in various leadership positions across engineering, sales, marketing and business development. She most recently served as Executive Vice President of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. Ms. Johnson also serves on the Board of Directors of Live Nation Entertainment, Inc.

Mr. Smith was appointed President and Chief Legal Officer in September 2015. Prior to that he served as Executive Vice President, General Counsel, and Secretary since 2011, and served as Senior Vice President, General Counsel, and Secretary from 2001 to 2011. Mr. Smith was also named Chief Compliance Officer in 2002. He had been Deputy General Counsel for Worldwide Sales and previously was responsible for managing the European Law and Corporate Affairs Group, based in Paris. Mr. Smith joined Microsoft in 1993. Mr. Smith also serves on the Board of Directors of Netflix, Inc.

EMPLOYEES

As of June 30, 2016, we employed approximately 114,000 people on a full-time basis, 63,000 in the U.S. and 51,000 internationally. Of the total employed people, 38,000 were in operations, including manufacturing, distribution, product support, and consulting services; 37,000 in product research and development; 29,000 in sales and marketing; and 10,000 in general and administration. Certain employees are subject to collective bargaining agreements.

In June 2015, management approved a restructuring plan that eliminated approximately 7,400 positions in fiscal year 2016, primarily in our phone hardware business.

We periodically evaluate how to best deploy the company’s resources. In the fourth quarter of 2016, management approved restructuring plans that would result in job eliminations, primarily across our smartphone hardware business and global sales. In addition to the elimination of 1,850 positions that were announced in May 2016, approximately 2,850 roles globally will be reduced during the year as an extension of the earlier plan, and these actions are expected to be completed by the end of fiscal year 2017.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

Our Internet address is www.microsoft.com. At our Investor Relations website, www.microsoft.com/investor, we make available free of charge a variety of information for investors. Our goal is to maintain the Investor Relations website as a portal through which investors can easily find or navigate to pertinent information about us, including:

 

   

Our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file that material with or furnish it to the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).

 

   

Information on our business strategies, financial results, and metrics for investors.

 

   

Announcements of investor conferences, speeches, and events at which our executives talk about our product, service, and competitive strategies. Archives of these events are also available.

 

   

Press releases on quarterly earnings, product and service announcements, legal developments, and international news.

 

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Corporate governance information including our articles of incorporation, bylaws, governance guidelines, committee charters, codes of conduct and ethics, global corporate social responsibility initiatives, and other governance-related policies.

 

   

Other news and announcements that we may post from time to time that investors might find useful or interesting.

 

   

Opportunities to sign up for email alerts and RSS feeds to have information pushed in real time.

The information found on our website is not part of this or any other report we file with, or furnish to, the SEC. In addition to these channels, we use social media to communicate to the public. It is possible that the information we post on social media could be deemed to be material to investors. We encourage investors, the media, and others interested in Microsoft to review the information we post on the social media channels listed on our Investor Relations website.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

Our operations and financial results are subject to various risks and uncertainties, including those described below, that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and the trading price of our common stock.

We face intense competition across all markets for our products and services, which may lead to lower revenue or operating margins.

Competition in the technology sector

Our competitors range in size from diversified global companies with significant research and development resources to small, specialized firms whose narrower product lines may let them be more effective in deploying technical, marketing, and financial resources. Barriers to entry in many of our businesses are low and many of the areas in which we compete evolve rapidly with changing and disruptive technologies, shifting user needs, and frequent introductions of new products and services. Our ability to remain competitive depends on our success in making innovative products, devices, and services that appeal to businesses and consumers.

Competition among platforms, ecosystems, and devices

An important element of our business model has been to create platform-based ecosystems on which many participants can build diverse solutions. A well-established ecosystem creates beneficial network effects among users, application developers, and the platform provider that can accelerate growth. Establishing significant scale in the marketplace is necessary to achieve and maintain attractive margins. We face significant competition from firms that provide competing platforms, applications, and services.

 

   

A competing vertically-integrated model, in which a single firm controls the software and hardware elements of a product and related services, has succeeded with some consumer products such as personal computers, tablets, phones, gaming consoles, and wearables. Competitors pursuing this model also earn revenue from services integrated with the hardware and software platform. We also offer some vertically-integrated hardware and software products and services. To the extent we shift a portion of our business to a vertically integrated model we increase our cost of revenue and reduce our operating margins.

 

   

We derive substantial revenue from licenses of Windows operating systems on personal computers. We face significant competition from competing platforms developed for new devices and form factors such as smartphones and tablet computers. These devices compete on multiple bases including price and the perceived utility of the device and its platform. Users are increasingly turning to these devices to perform functions that in the past were performed by personal computers. Even if many users view these devices as complementary to a personal computer, the prevalence of these devices may make it more difficult to

 

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attract application developers to our PC operating system platforms. Competing with operating systems licensed at low or no cost may decrease our PC operating system margins. In addition, some of our devices compete with products made by our OEM partners, which may affect their commitment to our platform.

 

   

Competing platforms have application marketplaces (sometimes referred to as “stores”) with scale and significant installed bases. The variety and utility of applications available on a platform are important to device purchasing decisions. Users incur costs to move data and buy new applications when switching platforms. To compete, we must successfully enlist developers to write applications for our marketplace and ensure that these applications have high quality, customer appeal, and value. Efforts to compete with competitors’ application marketplaces may increase our cost of revenue and lower our operating margins.

Business model competition

Companies compete with us based on a growing variety of business models.

 

   

Even as we transition to a mobile-first and cloud-first strategy, the license-based proprietary software model generates most of our software revenue. We bear the costs of converting original ideas into software products through investments in research and development, offsetting these costs with the revenue received from licensing our products. Many of our competitors also develop and sell software to businesses and consumers under this model.

 

   

Other competitors develop and offer free applications, online services and content, and make money by selling third-party advertising. Advertising revenue funds development of products and services these competitors provide to users at no or little cost, competing directly with our revenue-generating products.

 

   

Some companies compete with us using an open source business model by modifying and then distributing open source software at nominal cost to end-users, and earning revenue on advertising or complementary services and products. These firms do not bear the full costs of research and development for the software. Some open source software vendors develop software that mimics the features and functionality of our products.

The competitive pressures described above may cause decreased sales volumes, price reductions, and/or increased operating costs, such as for research and development, marketing, and sales incentives. This may lead to lower revenue, gross margins, and operating income.

Our increasing focus on services presents execution and competitive risks.     A growing part of our business involves cloud-based services available across the spectrum of computing devices. Our strategic vision is to compete and grow as a productivity and platform company for the mobile-first and cloud-first world. At the same time, our competitors are rapidly developing and deploying cloud-based services for consumers and business customers. Pricing and delivery models are evolving. Devices and form factors influence how users access services in the cloud and sometimes the user’s choice of which suite of cloud-based services to use. We are devoting significant resources to develop and deploy our cloud-based strategies. The Windows ecosystem must continue to evolve with this changing environment. We are undertaking cultural and organizational changes to drive accountability and eliminate obstacles to innovation. The Company’s increasing reliance on data-driven insights is becoming more important to the success of key opportunities in monetization, customer perceptions of quality, and operational efficiency. Besides software development costs, we are incurring costs to build and maintain infrastructure to support cloud computing services. These costs will reduce the operating margins we have previously achieved. Whether we succeed in cloud-based services depends on our execution in several areas, including:

 

   

Continuing to bring to market compelling cloud-based experiences that generate increasing traffic and market share.

 

   

Maintaining the utility, compatibility, and performance of our cloud-based services on the growing array of computing devices, including PCs, smartphones, tablets, gaming consoles, and other television-related devices.

 

   

Continuing to enhance the attractiveness of our cloud platforms to third-party developers.

 

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Ensuring our cloud-based services meet the reliability expectations of our customers and maintain the security of their data.

 

   

Making our suite of cloud-based services platform-agnostic, available on a wide range of devices and ecosystems, including those of our competitors.

It is uncertain whether our strategies will attract the users or generate the revenue required to succeed. If we are not effective in executing organizational and technical changes to increase efficiency and accelerate innovation, or if we fail to generate sufficient usage of our new products and services, we may not grow revenue in line with the infrastructure and development investments described above. This may negatively impact gross margins and operating income.

We make significant investments in new products and services that may not achieve expected returns.     We will continue to make significant investments in research, development, and marketing for existing products, services, and technologies, including the Windows operating system, the Microsoft Office system, Bing, Windows Phone, Windows Server, the Windows Store, the Microsoft Azure Services platform, Office 365, other cloud-based offerings, and the Xbox entertainment platform. We also invest in the development and acquisition of a variety of hardware for productivity, communication, and entertainment including PCs, tablets, phones, and gaming devices. Investments in new technology are speculative. Commercial success depends on many factors, including innovativeness, developer support, and effective distribution and marketing. If customers do not perceive our latest offerings as providing significant new functionality or other value, they may reduce their purchases of new software and hardware products or upgrades, unfavorably affecting revenue. We may not achieve significant revenue from new product, service, and distribution channel investments for several years, if at all. New products and services may not be profitable, and even if they are profitable, operating margins for some new products and businesses will not be as high as the margins we have experienced historically.

The launch of Windows 10, with free upgrades available to existing users of Windows 7 and 8.1, constitutes the most ambitious update effort we have ever undertaken. We have done extensive preparation and compatibility testing for applications and devices to help ensure a positive experience for our users installing Windows 10. However, if users have a negative upgrade experience, or the community reacts negatively to the process we are following to promote and undertake the upgrades, the reception of Windows 10 in the marketplace may be harmed, and customers or government agencies may bring litigation or regulatory actions. In addition, we anticipate that Windows 10 will enable new post-license monetization opportunities beyond initial license revenues. Our failure to realize these opportunities to the extent we expect could have an adverse impact on our revenues. Finally, our practices around data collection, use, and management in Windows 10 could result in regulatory review and decisions directing us to change these practices and imposing fines. If so, we could face negative public reaction, degraded user experiences, and reduced flexibility in product design.

Developing new technologies is complex. It can require long development and testing periods. Significant delays in new releases or significant problems in creating new products or services could adversely affect our revenue.

Acquisitions, joint ventures, and strategic alliances may have an adverse effect on our business.     We expect to continue making acquisitions and entering into joint ventures and strategic alliances as part of our long-term business strategy. In June 2016, we announced our acquisition of LinkedIn for approximately $26.2 billion. The LinkedIn acquisition and other transactions and arrangements involve significant challenges and risks, including that they do not advance our business strategy, that we get an unsatisfactory return on our investment, that we have difficulty integrating new employees, business systems, and technology, or that they distract management from our other businesses. If an arrangement fails to adequately anticipate changing circumstances and interests of a party, it may result in early termination or renegotiation of the arrangement. The success of these transactions and arrangements will depend in part on our ability to leverage them to enhance our existing products and services or develop compelling new ones. It may take longer than expected to realize the full benefits from these transactions and arrangements, such as increased revenue, enhanced efficiencies, or increased market share, or the benefits may ultimately be smaller than we expected. These events could adversely affect our operating results or financial condition.

 

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If our goodwill or amortizable intangible assets become impaired, we may be required to record a significant charge to earnings.     We acquire other companies and intangible assets and may not realize all the economic benefit from those acquisitions, which could cause an impairment of goodwill or intangibles. We review our amortizable intangible assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. We test goodwill for impairment at least annually. Factors that may be a change in circumstances, indicating that the carrying value of our goodwill or amortizable intangible assets may not be recoverable, include a decline in our stock price and market capitalization, reduced future cash flow estimates, and slower growth rates in industry segments in which we participate. We may be required to record a significant charge on our consolidated financial statements during the period in which any impairment of our goodwill or amortizable intangible assets is determined, negatively affecting our results of operations. For example, in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2015, we recorded a $5.1 billion charge for the impairment of goodwill and a $2.2 billion charge for the impairment of intangible assets, and in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2016 we recorded a $480 million charge for the impairment of intangible assets. The impairment charges for both periods related to our phone business. Our acquisition of LinkedIn will result in a significant increase in our goodwill and intangible asset balances.

We may not earn the revenues we expect from our intellectual property rights.

We may not be able to adequately protect our intellectual property rights

Protecting our global intellectual property rights and combating unlicensed copying and use of our software and other intellectual property is difficult. While piracy adversely affects U.S. revenue, the impact on revenue from outside the U.S. is more significant, particularly in countries where laws are less protective of intellectual property rights. Our revenue in these markets may grow slower than the underlying device market. Similarly, the absence of harmonized patent laws makes it more difficult to ensure consistent respect for patent rights. Throughout the world, we educate consumers about the benefits of licensing genuine products and obtaining indemnification benefits for intellectual property risks, and we educate lawmakers about the advantages of a business climate where intellectual property rights are protected. Reductions in the legal protection for software intellectual property rights could adversely affect revenue.

We may not receive expected royalties from our patent licenses

We expend significant resources to patent the intellectual property we create with the expectation that we will generate revenues by incorporating that intellectual property in our products or services or, in some instances, by licensing our patents to others in return for a royalty. Changes in the law may weaken our ability to prevent the use of patented technology or collect revenue for licensing our patents. These include legislative changes and regulatory actions that make it more difficult to obtain injunctions, and the increasing use of legal process to challenge issued patents. Similarly, licensees of our patents may fail to satisfy their obligations to pay us royalties, or may contest the scope and extent of their obligations. Finally, the royalties we can obtain to monetize our intellectual property may decline because of the evolution of technology, selling price changes in products using licensed patents, or the difficulty of discovering infringements.

Third parties may claim we infringe their intellectual property rights.     From time to time, others claim we infringe their intellectual property rights. The number of these claims may grow because of constant technological change in the markets in which we compete, the extensive patent coverage of existing technologies, the rapid rate of issuance of new patents, and our offering of first-party devices, such as Surface and Lumia phones. To resolve these claims, we may enter into royalty and licensing agreements on terms that are less favorable than currently available, stop selling or redesign affected products or services, or pay damages to satisfy indemnification commitments with our customers. These outcomes may cause operating margins to decline. Besides money damages, in some jurisdictions plaintiffs can seek injunctive relief that may limit or prevent importing, marketing, and selling our products or services that have infringing technologies. In some countries, such as Germany, an injunction can be issued before the parties have fully litigated the validity of the underlying patents. We have paid significant amounts to settle claims related to the use of technology and intellectual property rights and to procure intellectual property rights as part of our strategy to manage this risk, and may continue to do so.

 

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We may not be able to protect our source code from copying if there is an unauthorized disclosure of source code.     Source code, the detailed program commands for our operating systems and other software programs, is critical to our business. Although we license portions of our application and operating system source code to several licensees, we take significant measures to protect the secrecy of large portions of our source code. If a significant portion of our source code leaks, we might lose future trade secret protection for that source code. It may become easier for third parties to compete with our products by copying functionality, which could adversely affect our revenue and operating margins. Unauthorized disclosure of source code also could increase the security risks described in the next paragraph.

Cyber-attacks and security vulnerabilities could lead to reduced revenue, increased costs, liability claims, or harm to our competitive position.

Security of Microsoft’s information technology

Threats to IT security can take a variety of forms. Individual and groups of hackers, and sophisticated organizations including state-sponsored organizations or nation-states themselves, may take steps that pose threats to our customers and our IT. These actors may use a wide variety of methods, which may include developing and deploying malicious software to attack our products and services and gain access to our networks and datacenters, using social engineering techniques, or acting in a coordinated manner to launch distributed denial of service or other coordinated attacks. Cyber threats are constantly evolving, thereby increasing the difficulty of detecting and successfully defending against them. Cyber threats can have cascading impacts that unfold with increasing speed across our internal networks and systems and those of our partners and customers. Breaches of our network or data security could disrupt the security of our internal systems and business applications, impair our ability to provide services to our customers and protect the privacy of their data, result in product development delays, compromise confidential or technical business information harming our competitive position, result in theft or misuse of our intellectual property or other assets, require us to allocate more resources to improved technologies, or otherwise adversely affect our business.

In addition, our internal IT environment continues to evolve. Often we are early adopters of new devices and technologies. We embrace new ways of sharing data and communicating internally and with partners and customers using methods such as social networking and other consumer-oriented technologies. Our business policies and internal security controls may not keep pace with these changes as new threats emerge.

Security of our products, services, devices, and customers’ data

Security threats are a particular challenge to companies like us whose business is technology products and services. Threats to our own IT infrastructure can also affect our customers. Customers using our cloud-based services rely on the security of our infrastructure to ensure the reliability of our services and the protection of their data. Hackers tend to focus their efforts on the most popular operating systems, programs, and services, including many of ours, and we expect that to continue. The security of our products and services is important in our customers’ purchasing decisions.

To defend against security threats, both to our internal IT systems and those of our customers, we must continuously engineer more secure products and services, enhance security and reliability features, improve the deployment of software updates to address security vulnerabilities, develop mitigation technologies that help to secure customers from attacks even when software updates are not deployed, maintain the digital security infrastructure that protects the integrity of our network, products, and services, and provide customers security tools such as firewalls and anti-virus software.

The cost of these steps could reduce our operating margins. If we fail to do these things well, actual or perceived security vulnerabilities in our products and services could harm our reputation and lead customers to reduce or delay future purchases of products or subscriptions to services, or to use competing products or services. Customers may also spend more on protecting their existing computer systems from attack, which could delay adoption of additional

 

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products or services. Customers may fail to update their systems, continue to run software or operating systems we no longer support, or may fail timely to install security patches. Any of these actions by customers could adversely affect our revenue. Actual or perceived vulnerabilities may lead to claims against us. Although our license agreements typically contain provisions that eliminate or limit our exposure to liability, there is no assurance these provisions will withstand legal challenges. Legislative or regulatory action in these areas may increase the costs to develop, implement, or secure our products and services.

Disclosure of personal data could cause liability and harm our reputation.     As we continue to grow the number and scale of our cloud-based offerings, we store and process increasingly large amounts of personally identifiable information of our customers. The continued occurrence of high-profile data breaches provides evidence of an external environment increasingly hostile to information security. Despite our efforts to improve the security controls across our business groups and geographies, it is possible our security controls over personal data, our training of employees and vendors on data security, and other practices we follow may not prevent the improper disclosure of customer data we or our vendors store and manage. Improper disclosure could harm our reputation, lead to legal exposure to customers, or subject us to liability under laws that protect personal data, resulting in increased costs or loss of revenue. Our software products and services also enable our customers to store and process personal data on-premises or, increasingly, in a cloud-based environment we host. Government authorities can sometimes require us to produce customer data in response to valid legal orders. In the U.S. and elsewhere, we advocate for transparency concerning these requests and appropriate limitations on government authority to compel disclosure. Despite our efforts to protect customer data, perceptions that the collection, use and retention of personal information is not satisfactorily protected could inhibit sales of our products or services, and could limit adoption of our cloud-based solutions by consumers, businesses, and government entities. Additional security measures we may take to address customer concerns, or constraints on our flexibility to determine where and how to operate datacenters in response to customer expectations or governmental rules or actions, may cause higher operating expenses.

We may have outages, data losses, and disruptions of our online services if we fail to maintain an adequate operations infrastructure.     Our increasing user traffic, growth in services, and the complexity of our products and services demand more computing power. We spend substantial amounts to build, purchase, or lease datacenters and equipment and to upgrade our technology and network infrastructure to handle more traffic on our websites and in our datacenters. These demands continue to increase as we introduce new products and services and support the growth of existing services such as Bing, Exchange Online, Office 365, SharePoint Online, OneDrive, Skype, Xbox Live, Microsoft Azure, Outlook.com, Windows Stores, and Microsoft Account services. We are rapidly growing our business of providing a platform and back-end hosting for services provided by third parties to their end users. Maintaining, securing, and expanding this infrastructure is expensive and complex. It requires that we maintain an Internet connectivity infrastructure that is robust and reliable within competitive and regulatory constraints that continue to evolve. Inefficiencies or operational failures, including temporary or permanent loss of customer data or insufficient Internet connectivity, could diminish the quality of our products, services, and user experience resulting in contractual liability, claims by customers and other third parties, damage to our reputation and loss of current and potential users, subscribers, and advertisers, each of which may harm our operating results and financial condition.

Government litigation and regulatory activity relating to competition rules may limit how we design and market our products.     As a leading global software and device maker, we are closely scrutinized by government agencies under U.S. and foreign competition laws. An increasing number of governments are regulating competition law activities and this includes increased scrutiny in potentially large markets such as the European Union (“EU”), the U.S., and China. Some jurisdictions also allow competitors or consumers to assert claims of anti-competitive conduct. U.S. federal and state antitrust authorities have previously brought enforcement actions and continue to scrutinize our business.

The European Commission (“the Commission”) closely scrutinizes the design of high-volume Microsoft products and the terms on which we make certain technologies used in these products, such as file formats, programming interfaces, and protocols, available to other companies. Flagship product releases such as Windows 10 can receive significant scrutiny under competition laws. For example, in 2004, the Commission ordered us to create new versions of our Windows operating system that do not include certain multimedia technologies and to provide our

 

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competitors with specifications for how to implement certain proprietary Windows communications protocols in their own products. In 2009, the Commission accepted a set of commitments offered by Microsoft to address the Commission’s concerns relating to competition in web browsing software, including an undertaking to address Commission concerns relating to interoperability. The web browsing commitments expired in 2014. The remaining obligations may limit our ability to innovate in Windows or other products in the future, diminish the developer appeal of the Windows platform, and increase our product development costs. The availability of licenses related to protocols and file formats may enable competitors to develop software products that better mimic the functionality of our products, which could hamper sales of our products.

Our portfolio of first-party devices continues to grow; at the same time our OEM partners offer a large variety of devices on our platforms. As a result, increasingly we both cooperate and compete with our OEM partners, creating a risk that we fail to do so in compliance with competition rules. Regulatory scrutiny in this area may increase. Certain foreign governments, particularly in China and other countries in Asia, have advanced arguments under their competition laws that exert downward pressure on royalties for our intellectual property. Because these jurisdictions only recently implemented competition laws, their enforcement activities are unpredictable.

Government regulatory actions and court decisions such as these may hinder our ability to provide the benefits of our software to consumers and businesses, reducing the attractiveness of our products and the revenue that come from them. New competition law actions could be initiated. The outcome of such actions, or steps taken to avoid them, could adversely affect us in a variety of ways, including:

 

   

We may have to choose between withdrawing products from certain geographies to avoid fines or designing and developing alternative versions of those products to comply with government rulings, which may entail a delay in a product release and removing functionality that customers want or on which developers rely.

 

   

We may be required to make available licenses to our proprietary technologies on terms that do not reflect their fair market value or do not protect our associated intellectual property.

 

   

The rulings described above may be precedent in other competition law proceedings.

 

   

We are subject to a variety of ongoing commitments because of court or administrative orders, consent decrees, or other voluntary actions we have taken. If we fail to comply with these commitments, we may incur litigation costs and be subject to substantial fines or other remedial actions.

 

   

Our ability to realize anticipated Windows 10 post-sale monetization opportunities may be limited.

Our global operations subject us to potential liability under anti-corruption, trade protection, and other laws and regulations.     The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws and regulations (“Anti-Corruption Laws”) prohibit corrupt payments by our employees, vendors, or agents. From time to time, we receive inquiries from authorities in the U.S. and elsewhere and reports from employees and others about our business activities outside the U.S. and our compliance with Anti-Corruption Laws. Specifically, we have been cooperating with authorities in the US in connection with reports concerning our compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act in various countries. While we devote substantial resources to our global compliance programs and have implemented policies, training, and internal controls designed to reduce the risk of corrupt payments, our employees, vendors, or agents may violate our policies. Our failure to comply with Anti-Corruption Laws could result in significant fines and penalties, criminal sanctions against us, our officers, or our employees, prohibitions on the conduct of our business, and damage to our reputation. Geopolitical instability may lead to sanctions and impact our ability to do business in some geographies. Operations outside the U.S. may be affected by changes in trade protection laws, policies, and measures, sanctions, and other regulatory requirements affecting trade and investment. We may be subject to legal liability and reputational damage if we sell goods or services in violation of U.S. trade sanctions on countries such as Iran, North Korea, Cuba, Sudan, and Syria.

Other regulatory areas that may apply to our products and online services offerings include user privacy, telecommunications, data storage and protection, and online content. For example, regulators may take the position that our offerings such as Skype are covered by laws regulating telecommunications services. Applying these laws and regulations to our business is often unclear, subject to change over time, and sometimes may conflict from

 

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jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Additionally, these laws and governments’ approach to their enforcement, and our products and services, are continuing to evolve. Compliance with these types of regulation may involve significant costs or require changes in products or business practices that result in reduced revenue. Noncompliance could result in the imposition of penalties or orders we stop the alleged noncompliant activity.

Laws and regulations relating to the handling of personal data may impede the adoption of our services or result in increased costs, legal claims, or fines against us.     The growth of our internet- and cloud-based services internationally relies increasingly on the movement of data across national boundaries. Legal requirements relating to the collection, storage, handling, and transfer of personal data continue to evolve. For example, in October 2015 the European Court of Justice (“ECJ”) invalidated the EU/U.S. safe harbor framework, in place since 2000, that enabled companies to transfer data from EU member states to the U.S. Although other legally-recognized methods to enable data transfers currently remain valid, the reasoning of the ECJ striking down the safe harbor framework could be used to challenge those methods in future complaints. There is a recognized need for a new regulatory safe harbor framework that will also support other methods of data transfer between the EU and U.S. Outcomes may include a new trans-Atlantic data transfer agreement, a new EU data protection directive, or a range of legal requirements adopted by individual EU member states, or no action at all. One or more of these outcomes may result in burdensome or inconsistent requirements affecting the location and movement of our customer and internal employee data as well as the management of that data. Compliance may require changes in services, business practices, or internal systems that result in increased costs, lower revenue, reduced efficiency, or greater difficulty in competing with foreign-based firms. Failure to comply with existing or new rules may result in significant penalties or orders to stop the alleged noncompliant activity.

Our business depends on our ability to attract and retain talented employees.     Our business is based on successfully attracting and retaining talented employees. The market for highly skilled workers and leaders in our industry is extremely competitive. We are limited in our ability to recruit internationally by restrictive domestic immigration laws. If we are less successful in our recruiting efforts, or if we cannot retain key employees, our ability to develop and deliver successful products and services may be adversely affected. Effective succession planning is also important to our long-term success. Failure to ensure effective transfer of knowledge and smooth transitions involving key employees could hinder our strategic planning and execution. How employment-related laws are interpreted and applied to our workforce practices may result in increased operating costs and less flexibility in how we meet our workforce needs.

We have claims and lawsuits against us that may result in adverse outcomes.     We are subject to a variety of claims and lawsuits. These claims may arise from a wide variety of business practices and initiatives, including major new product releases such as Windows 10, significant business transactions, and employment practices. Adverse outcomes in some or all of these claims may result in significant monetary damages or injunctive relief that could adversely affect our ability to conduct our business. The litigation and other claims are subject to inherent uncertainties and management’s view of these matters may change in the future. A material adverse impact on our consolidated financial statements could occur for the period in which the effect of an unfavorable final outcome becomes probable and reasonably estimable.

We may have additional tax liabilities.     We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and many foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. In the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. We regularly are under audit by tax authorities in different jurisdictions. Economic and political pressures to increase tax revenue in various jurisdictions may make resolving tax disputes favorably more difficult. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, the final determination of tax audits and any related litigation in the jurisdictions where we are subject to taxation could be materially different from our historical income tax provisions and accruals. The results of an audit or litigation could have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements in the period or periods in which that determination is made.

We earn a significant amount of our operating income from outside the U.S., and any repatriation of funds currently held in foreign jurisdictions to the U.S. may result in higher effective tax rates for the company. In addition, there have been proposals from Congress to change U.S. tax laws that would significantly impact how U.S. multinational corporations are taxed on foreign earnings. Although we cannot predict whether or in what form any proposed legislation may pass, if enacted, it could have a material adverse impact on our tax expense and cash flows.

 

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Our hardware and software products may experience quality or supply problems.     Our vertically-integrated hardware products such as Xbox consoles, Surface devices, phones, and other devices we design, manufacture, and market are highly complex and can have defects in design, manufacture, or associated software. We could incur significant expenses, lost revenue, and reputational harm if we fail to detect or address such issues through design, testing, or warranty repairs. We acquire some device components from sole suppliers. Our competitors use some of the same suppliers and their demand for hardware components can affect the capacity available to us. If a component from a sole-source supplier is delayed or becomes unavailable, whether because of supplier capacity constraint or industry shortages, we may not obtain timely replacement supplies, resulting in reduced sales. Component shortages, excess or obsolete inventory, or price reductions resulting in inventory adjustments may increase our cost of revenue. Xbox consoles, Surface devices, phones, and other hardware are assembled in Asia and other geographies that may be subject to disruptions in the supply chain, resulting in shortages that would affect our revenue and operating margins. These same risks would apply to any other vertically-integrated hardware and software products we may offer.

Our software products also may experience quality or reliability problems. The highly sophisticated software products we develop may contain bugs and other defects that interfere with their intended operation. Any defects we do not detect and fix in pre-release testing could cause reduced sales and revenue, damage to our reputation, repair or remediation costs, delays in the release of new products or versions, or legal liability. Although our license agreements typically contain provisions that eliminate or limit our exposure to liability, there is no assurance these provisions will withstand legal challenge.

We strive to empower all people and organizations to achieve more and accessibility of our products is an important aspect of this goal. There is increasing pressure from advocacy groups, regulators, competitors, and customers to make technology more accessible. If our products do not meet customer expectations or emerging global accessibility requirements, we could lose sales opportunities or face regulatory actions.

Our global business exposes us to operational and economic risks.     Our customers are located in over 200 countries and a significant part of our revenue comes from international sales. The global nature of our business creates operational and economic risks. Emerging markets are a significant focus of our international growth strategy. The developing nature of these markets presents several risks, including deterioration of social, political, labor, or economic conditions in a country or region, and difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations. Although we hedge a portion of our international currency exposure, significant fluctuations in foreign exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies may adversely affect our revenue. Competitive or regulatory pressure to make our pricing structure uniform might require that we reduce the sales price of our software in the U.S. and other countries.

Catastrophic events or geopolitical conditions may disrupt our business.     A disruption or failure of our systems or operations because of a major earthquake, weather event, cyber-attack, terrorist attack, or other catastrophic event could cause delays in completing sales, providing services, or performing other critical functions. Our corporate headquarters, a significant portion of our research and development activities, and certain other essential business operations are in the Seattle, Washington area, and we have other business operations in the Silicon Valley area of California, both of which are seismically active regions. A catastrophic event that results in the destruction or disruption of any of our critical business or IT systems could harm our ability to conduct normal business operations. Providing our customers with more services and solutions in the cloud puts a premium on the resilience of our systems and strength of our business continuity management plans, and magnifies the potential impact of prolonged service outages on our operating results.

Abrupt political change, terrorist activity, and armed conflict pose a risk of general economic disruption in affected countries, which may increase our operating costs. These conditions also may add uncertainty to the timing and budget for technology investment decisions by our customers, and may cause supply chain disruptions for hardware manufacturers, either of which may adversely affect our revenue. The long-term effects of climate change on the global economy or the IT industry in particular are unclear. Environmental regulations or changes in the supply, demand or available sources of energy or other natural resources may affect the availability or cost of goods and services, including natural resources, necessary to run our business. Changes in weather where we operate may increase the costs of powering and cooling computer hardware we use to develop software and provide cloud-based services.

 

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Item 1A, 1B, 2

 

Adverse economic or market conditions may harm our business.     Worsening economic conditions, including inflation, recession, or other changes in economic conditions, may cause lower IT spending and adversely affect our revenue. If demand for PCs, servers, and other computing devices declines, or consumer or business spending for those products declines, our revenue will be adversely affected. Substantial revenue comes from our U.S. government contracts. An extended federal government shutdown resulting from failing to pass budget appropriations, adopt continuing funding resolutions or raise the debt ceiling, and other budgetary decisions limiting or delaying federal government spending, could reduce government IT spending on our products and services and adversely affect our revenue.

Our product distribution system relies on an extensive partner and retail network. OEMs building devices that run our software have also been a significant means of distribution. The impact of economic conditions on our partners, such as the bankruptcy of a major distributor, OEM, or retailer, could cause sales channel disruption.

Challenging economic conditions also may impair the ability of our customers to pay for products and services they have purchased. As a result, allowances for doubtful accounts and write-offs of accounts receivable may increase.

We maintain an investment portfolio of various holdings, types, and maturities. These investments are subject to general credit, liquidity, market, and interest rate risks, which may be exacerbated by unusual events that affect global financial markets. A significant part of our investment portfolio comprises U.S. government securities. If global credit and equity markets decline for long periods, or if there is a downgrade of the U.S. government credit rating due to an actual or threatened default on government debt, our investment portfolio may be adversely affected and we could determine that more of our investments have experienced an other-than-temporary decline in fair value, requiring impairment charges that could adversely affect our financial results.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

We have received no written comments regarding our periodic or current reports from the staff of the SEC that were issued 180 days or more preceding the end of our fiscal year 2016 that remain unresolved.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Our corporate headquarters are located in Redmond, Washington. We have approximately 15 million square feet of space located in King County, Washington that is used for engineering, sales, marketing, and operations, among other general and administrative purposes. These facilities include approximately 10 million square feet of owned space situated on approximately 500 acres of land we own at our corporate headquarters, and approximately five million square feet of space we lease. In addition, we own and lease space domestically that includes office, retail, and datacenter space.

We also own and lease facilities internationally. Properties that we own include: our research and development centers in China and India; our operations in Ireland and Singapore; our phone manufacturing facilities, predominantly in Vietnam; and our facilities in the United Kingdom. The largest leased office spaces include the following locations: Finland, China, India, Germany, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Japan. In addition to the above locations, we have various product development facilities, both domestically and internationally, as described in the “Research and Development” section of Item 1 of this Form 10-K.

The table below shows a summary of facilities owned and leased domestically and internationally as of June 30, 2016:

 

(Square feet in millions)  


Location    Owned     Leased     Total  

U.S.

     16.4        9.7        26.1   

International

     9.0        10.8        19.8   


 


 


Total

     25.4        20.5        45.9   
    


 


 


 

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Item 3, 4

 

I TEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

While not material to the Company, the Company makes the following annual report of the general activities of the Company’s Antitrust Compliance Office as required by the Final Order and Judgment in Barovic v. Ballmer et al, United States District Court for the Western District of Washington (“Final Order”). For more information see http://aka.ms/MSLegalNotice2015. These annual reports will continue through 2020. During fiscal year 2016, the Antitrust Compliance Office (a) monitored the Company’s compliance with the European Commission Decision of March 24, 2004, (“2004 Decision”) and with the Company’s Public Undertaking to the European Commission dated December 16, 2009 (“2009 Undertaking”); (b) monitored, in the manner required by the Final Order, employee, customer, competitor, regulator, or other third-party complaints regarding compliance with the 2004 Decision, the 2009 Undertaking, or other EU or U.S. laws or regulations governing tying, bundling, and exclusive dealing contracts; and, (c) monitored, in the manner required by the Final Order, the training of the Company’s employees regarding the Company’s antitrust compliance polices. In addition, the Antitrust Compliance Officer reports to the Regulatory and Public Policy Committee of the Board at each of its regularly scheduled meetings and to the full Board annually.

See Note 17 – Contingencies of the Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K) for information regarding legal proceedings in which we are involved.

ITEM 4 . MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

 

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Item 5, 6

 

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

MARKET AND STOCKHOLDERS

Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Stock Market under the symbol MSFT. On July 25, 2016, there were 106,534 registered holders of record of our common stock. The high and low common stock sales prices per share were as follows:

 

Quarter Ended    September 30     December 31     March 31     June 30     Fiscal Year  


Fiscal Year 2016

                                        

High

     $  48.41        $  56.85        $  55.64        $  56.77        $  56.85   

Low

     $  39.72        $  43.75        $  48.19        $  48.04        $  39.72   


Fiscal Year 2015

                                        

High

     $  47.57        $  50.05        $  47.91        $  49.54        $  50.05   

Low

     $  41.05        $  42.10        $  40.23        $  40.12        $  40.12   


DIVIDENDS AND SHARE REPURCHASES

See Note 18 – Stockholders’ Equity of the Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K) for information regarding dividends and share repurchases by quarter. Following are our monthly stock repurchases for the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2016, all of which were made as part of publicly announced plans or programs:

 

Period   

Total Number
of Shares

Purchased

   

Average

Price Paid
per Share

    Total Number of
Shares Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs
   

Approximate Dollar Value of

Shares that May Yet be

Purchased under the Plans
or Programs

 


                       (in millions)  

April 1, 2016 – April 30, 2016

     23,687,526      $   53.72        23,687,526        $  9,410   

May 1, 2016 – May 31, 2016

     11,691,472      $   50.51        11,691,472        $  8,820   

June 1, 2016 – June 30, 2016

     34,576,695      $   50.23        34,576,695         $  7,083   


 


 


 


       69,955,693               69,955,693           
    


         


       

All repurchases were made using cash resources. Our stock repurchases may occur through open market purchases or pursuant to a Rule 10b5-1 trading plan.

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

 

(In millions, except per share data)                               


Year Ended June 30,      2016        2015        2014  (d)       2013        2012   

Revenue

   $ 85,320  (a)     $ 93,580      $ 86,833      $ 77,849      $ 73,723   

Gross margin

   $ 52,540  (a)     $ 60,542      $ 59,755      $ 57,464      $ 56,193   

Operating income

   $ 20,182  (a)(b)     $ 18,161   (c)     $ 27,759      $ 26,764   (e)     $ 21,763   (f)  

Net income

   $ 16,798  (a)(b)     $ 12,193   (c)     $ 22,074      $ 21,863   (e)     $ 16,978   (f)  

Diluted earnings per share

   $ 2.10  (a)(b)     $ 1.48   (c)     $ 2.63      $ 2.58   (e)     $ 2.00   (f)  

Cash dividends declared per share

   $ 1.44      $ 1.24      $ 1.12      $ 0.92      $ 0.80   

Cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments

   $   113,240      $ 96,526      $ 85,709      $ 77,022      $ 63,040   

Total assets

   $ 193,694      $   174,472   (g)     $   170,675   (g)     $   140,962   (g)     $   119,388   (g)  

Long-term obligations

   $ 62,340      $ 44,742   (g)     $ 35,391   (g)     $ 24,601   (g)     $ 20,337   (g)  

Stockholders’ equity

   $ 71,977      $ 80,083      $ 89,784      $ 78,944      $ 66,363   


 

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Item 6, 7

 

(a)

Reflects the impact of the net revenue deferral from Windows 10 of $6.6 billion, which decreased operating income, net income, and diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) by $6.6 billion, $4.6 billion, and $0.58, respectively .

(b)

Includes $630 million of asset impairment charges related to our phone business, and $480 million of restructuring charges associated with our phone business restructuring plans, which together decreased operating income, net income, and diluted EPS by $1.1 billion, $895 million, and $0.11, respectively.

(c)

Includes $7.5 billion of goodwill and asset impairment charges related to our phone business, and $2.5 billion of integration and restructuring expenses, primarily associated with our phone business restructuring plans, which together decreased operating income, net income, and diluted EPS by $10.0 billion, $9.5 billion, and $1.15, respectively.

(d)

On April 25, 2014, we acquired substantially all of NDS. NDS has been included in our consolidated results of operations starting on the acquisition date .

(e)

Includes a charge related to a fine imposed by the European Commission in March 2013 which decreased operating income and net income by $733 million (€561 million) and diluted EPS by $0.09. Also includes a charge for Surface RT inventory adjustments recorded in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2013, which decreased operating income, net income, and diluted EPS by $900 million, $596 million, and $0.07, respectively.

(f)

Includes a goodwill impairment charge related to our previous Online Services Division business segment (related to More Personal Computing under our current segment structure) which decreased operating income and net income by $6.2 billion and diluted EPS by $0.73.

(g)

Reflects the impact of the adoption of the new accounting standard in fiscal year 2016 related to balance sheet classification of deferred taxes. See Note 1 – Accounting Policies of the Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K) for further discussion.

I TEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis (“MD&A”) is intended to help the reader understand the results of operations and financial condition of Microsoft Corporation. MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, our financial statements and the accompanying Notes to Financial Statements.

OVERVIEW

Microsoft is a technology company whose mission is to empower every person and every organization on the planet to achieve more. Our strategy is to build best-in-class platforms and productivity services for a mobile-first, cloud-first world. We develop, license, and support a wide range of software products, services, and devices that deliver new opportunities, greater convenience, and enhanced value to people’s lives.

We generate revenue by licensing and supporting an array of software products, by offering a wide range of services, including cloud-based services to consumers and businesses, by designing, manufacturing, and selling devices that integrate with our cloud-based services, and by delivering relevant online advertising to a global audience. Our most significant expenses are related to compensating employees; designing, manufacturing, marketing, and selling our products and services; datacenter costs in support of our cloud-based services; and income taxes.

Much of our focus in fiscal year 2016 was toward transforming our organization to support our strategy of building best-in-class platforms and productivity services for a mobile-first, cloud-first world. We achieved product development milestones, implemented organizational changes, and made strategic and tactical moves to support the three central ambitions that support our strategy: reinventing productivity and business processes; building the intelligent cloud platform; and creating more personal computing.

Highlights from fiscal year 2016 included:

 

   

Commercial cloud annualized revenue run rate* exceeded $12.1 billion.

 

   

Office 365 Consumer subscribers increased to 23.1 million.

 

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Microsoft Dynamics (“Dynamics”) CRM Online seat additions more than doubled year-over-year.

 

   

Microsoft Azure (“Azure”) revenue grew 113%, with usage of Azure compute and Azure SQL database more than doubling year-over-year. Enterprise Mobility customers nearly doubled year-over-year to over 33,000.

 

   

Windows 10 is now active on more than 350 million devices around the world.

 

   

Xbox Live monthly active users grew 33% year-over-year to 49 million.

 

*

Commercial cloud annualized revenue run rate is calculated by multiplying revenue for the last month of the quarter by twelve for Office 365 commercial, Azure, Dynamics Online, and other cloud properties.

In June 2016, we entered into a definitive agreement to acquire LinkedIn for $196 per share in an all-cash transaction valued at $26.2 billion, inclusive of LinkedIn’s net cash (the “Merger Agreement”). We will finance the transaction primarily through the issuance of new indebtedness. The Merger Agreement has been unanimously approved by the Boards of Directors of both Microsoft and LinkedIn, and we expect the acquisition will close in calendar year 2016, subject to approval by LinkedIn’s shareholders, satisfaction of certain regulatory approvals, and other customary closing conditions. The acquisition is anticipated to accelerate the growth of LinkedIn, as well as Office 365 and Dynamics.

In May 2016, we announced the sale of our entry-level feature phone business for $350 million. The transaction is expected to close in the second half of 2016, subject to regulatory approvals and other closing conditions.

In July 2015, we announced a plan to restructure our phone business to better focus and align resources. In May 2016, we announced plans to further streamline our smartphone hardware business. These changes in the phone business reinforce our strategy to create a vibrant Windows ecosystem with a single set of experiences across our first-party device family and original equipment manufacturer (“OEM”) offerings. Part of this strategy involves focusing our phone devices on a narrower range of customer categories and differentiating through the combination of hardware and software we are uniquely positioned to offer. As anticipated, our change in phone strategy resulted in a reduction in units sold and associated expenses in fiscal year 2016, and this trend is expected to continue in fiscal year 2017.

Industry Trends

Our industry is dynamic and highly competitive, with frequent changes in both technologies and business models. Each industry shift is an opportunity to conceive new products, new technologies, or new ideas that can further transform the industry and our business. At Microsoft, we push the boundaries of what is possible through a broad range of research and development activities that seek to identify and address the changing demands of customers and users, industry trends, and competitive forces.

Economic Conditions, Challenges, and Risks

The market for software, devices, and cloud-based services is dynamic and highly competitive. Our competitors are developing new software and devices, while also deploying competing cloud-based services for consumers and businesses. The devices and form factors customers prefer evolve rapidly, and influence how users access services in the cloud, and in some cases, the user’s choice of which suite of cloud-based services to use. We must continue to evolve and adapt over an extended time in pace with this changing environment. The investments we are making in devices and infrastructure will continue to increase our operating costs and may decrease our operating margins.

Our success is highly dependent on our ability to attract and retain qualified employees. We hire a mix of university and industry talent worldwide. Microsoft competes for talented individuals globally by offering an exceptional working environment, broad customer reach, scale in resources, the ability to grow one’s career across many different products and businesses, and competitive compensation and benefits. Aggregate demand for our software, services, and devices is correlated to global macroeconomic and geopolitical factors, which remain dynamic.

 

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Our international operations provide a significant portion of our total revenue and expenses. Many of these revenue and expenses are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. As a result, changes in foreign exchange rates may significantly affect revenue and expenses. The strengthening of the U.S. dollar relative to certain foreign currencies throughout fiscal year 2015, and continuing into fiscal year 2016, negatively impacted reported revenue and reduced reported expenses from our international operations.

See a discussion of these factors and other risks under Risk Factors (Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K).

Seasonality

Our revenue historically has fluctuated quarterly and has generally been highest in the second quarter of our fiscal year due to corporate calendar year-end spending trends in our major markets and holiday season spending by consumers.

Unearned Revenue

Quarterly and annual revenue is impacted by the deferral of revenue, primarily including:

 

   

Revenue deferred on Windows 10 licenses to reflect ratable recognition over the life of the device.

 

   

Revenue deferred on bundled products and services (“Bundled Offerings”).

If our customers choose to license cloud-based versions of our products and services rather than licensing transaction-based products and services, the associated revenue will shift from being recognized at the time of the transaction to being recognized over the subscription period or upon consumption, as applicable.

Product Revenue and Service and Other Revenue

Due to the growth in our cloud-based solutions, service revenue exceeded 10% of total revenue for the first time in fiscal year 2016. As a result, we have separately disclosed product revenue and service and other revenue on our consolidated income statements.

Product revenue includes sales from operating systems; cross-device productivity applications; server applications; business solution applications; desktop and server management tools; software development tools; video games; hardware such as PCs, tablets, gaming and entertainment consoles, phones, other intelligent devices, and related accessories; and training and certification of computer system integrators and developers.

Service and other revenue includes sales from cloud-based solutions that provide customers with software, services, platforms, and content such as Office 365, Azure, Dynamics CRM Online, and Xbox Live; solution support; and consulting services. Service and other revenue also includes sales from online advertising.

Reportable Segments

The segment amounts included in MD&A are presented on a basis consistent with our internal management reporting. Segment information appearing in Note 21 – Segment Information and Geographic Data of the Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K) is also presented on this basis. All differences between our internal management reporting basis and accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”), along with certain corporate-level and other activity, are included in Corporate and Other.

In June 2015, we announced a change in organizational structure to align to our strategic direction as a productivity and platform company. During the first quarter of fiscal year 2016, our chief operating decision maker, who is also our Chief Executive Officer, requested changes in the information that he regularly reviews for purposes of allocating resources and assessing performance. As a result, beginning in fiscal year 2016, we report our financial performance based on our new segments, Productivity and Business Processes, Intelligent Cloud, and More Personal Computing, and analyze operating income as the measure of segment profitability. We have recast certain previously reported amounts to conform to the way we internally manage and monitor segment performance.

 

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We expect to report the financial performance of LinkedIn as part of our Productivity and Business Processes segment.

Additional information on our reportable segments is contained in Note 21 – Segment Information and Geographic Data of the Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K).

SUMMARY RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

(In millions, except percentages and per share amounts)    2016     2015     2014     Percentage
Change 2016
Versus 2015
    Percentage
Change 2015
Versus 2014
 


Revenue

   $   85,320      $   93,580      $   86,833        (9)%        8%   

Gross margin

   $ 52,540      $ 60,542      $ 59,755        (13)%        1%   

Operating income

   $ 20,182      $ 18,161      $ 27,759        11%        (35)%   

Diluted earnings per share

   $ 2.10      $ 1.48      $ 2.63        42%        (44)%   


Fiscal year 2016 compared with fiscal year 2015

Revenue decreased $8.3 billion or 9%, primarily due to the impact of the net revenue deferral from Windows 10 of $6.6 billion and an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately $3.8 billion or 4%. Windows 10 revenue is primarily recognized at the time of billing in the More Personal Computing segment, and the deferral and subsequent recognition of revenue is reflected in Corporate and Other. More Personal Computing revenue decreased, mainly due to lower revenue from Devices and Windows, offset in part by higher revenue from search advertising and Gaming. Intelligent Cloud revenue increased, primarily due to higher revenue from server products and cloud services and Enterprise Services. Productivity and Business Processes revenue increased slightly, driven by an increase in Office and Dynamics revenue.

Operating income increased $2.0 billion or 11%, primarily due to a decrease in impairment, integration, and restructuring expenses and sales and marketing expenses, offset in part by lower gross margin. Gross margin decreased $8.0 billion or 13%, driven by the decline in revenue as discussed above, and included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately $3.3 billion or 5%. Productivity and Business Processes and More Personal Computing gross margin decreased, offset in part by higher gross margin from Intelligent Cloud.

Key changes in expenses were:

 

   

Cost of revenue decreased $258 million or 1%, mainly due to a reduction in phone sales, driven by the change in strategy for the phone business, offset in part by growth in commercial cloud and search advertising.

 

   

Impairment, integration, and restructuring expenses decreased $8.9 billion, primarily driven by prior year goodwill and asset impairment charges related to our phone business and restructuring charges associated with our phone business restructuring plans.

 

   

Sales and marketing expenses decreased $1.0 billion or 6%, driven by a reduction in phone expenses and a favorable foreign currency impact of approximately 2%.

Diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) was $2.10 for fiscal year 2016. Current year diluted EPS was negatively impacted by the net revenue deferral from Windows 10 and impairment, integration, and restructuring expenses, which resulted in a decrease to diluted EPS of $0.69, and favorably impacted by the adoption of new accounting guidance related to stock-based compensation, which resulted in an increase to diluted EPS of $0.05. Diluted EPS was $1.48 for fiscal year 2015. Prior year diluted EPS was negatively impacted by impairment, integration, and restructuring expenses, which resulted in a decrease to diluted EPS of $1.15.

 

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Fiscal year 2015 compared with fiscal year 2014

Revenue increased $6.7 billion or 8%, primarily due to higher revenue from More Personal Computing and Intelligent Cloud. More Personal Computing revenue increased, primarily due to higher revenue from Devices, search advertising and Gaming, offset in part by a decline in Windows revenue. Intelligent Cloud revenue increased, primarily due to higher revenue from server products and cloud services. Revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 2%.

Operating income decreased $9.6 billion or 35%, primarily due to impairment, integration, and restructuring expenses in fiscal year 2015, as well as increased research and development expenses, offset in part by higher gross margin. Gross margin increased $787 million or 1%, driven by our Intelligent Cloud, offset in part by a reduction in gross margin from Productivity and Business Processes. Key changes in expenses were:

 

   

Cost of revenue increased $6.0 billion or 22%, mainly due to phone sales, as well as increasing costs in support of our commercial cloud, including $396 million of higher datacenter expenses.

 

   

Impairment, integration, and restructuring expenses were $10.0 billion in fiscal year 2015, reflecting goodwill and asset impairment charges of $7.5 billion related to our phone business, and $2.5 billion of integration and restructuring expenses, primarily driven by costs associated with our phone business restructuring plans.

 

   

Research and development expenses increased $665 million or 6%, mainly due to increased investment in new products and services, including phone expenses, offset in part by reduced headcount-related expenses.

Diluted EPS was $1.48 for fiscal year 2015. Diluted EPS was negatively impacted by impairment, integration, and restructuring expenses, which decreased diluted EPS by $1.15.

SEGMENT RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

(In millions, except percentages)    2016     2015     2014     Percentage
Change 2016
Versus 2015
    Percentage
Change 2015
Versus 2014
 


Revenue

                                        

Productivity and Business Processes

   $   26,487      $   26,430      $   26,976        0%        (2)%   

Intelligent Cloud

     25,042        23,715        21,735        6%        9%   

More Personal Computing

     40,460        43,160        38,460        (6)%        12%   

Corporate and Other

     (6,669     275        (338     *        *   


 


 


               

Total revenue

   $ 85,320      $ 93,580      $ 86,833        (9)%        8%   
    


 


 


               

Operating income (loss)

                                        

Productivity and Business Processes

   $ 12,461      $ 13,359      $ 14,173        (7)%        (6)%   

Intelligent Cloud

     9,358        9,871        8,446        (5)%        17%   

More Personal Computing

     6,142        4,667        5,605        32%        (17)%   

Corporate and Other

     (7,779     (9,736     (465     *        *   


 


 


               

Total operating income

   $ 20,182      $ 18,161      $ 27,759        11%        (35)%   
    


 


 


               

 

*

Not meaningful

 

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Reportable Segments

Fiscal year 2016 compared with fiscal year 2015

Productivity and Business Processes

Productivity and Business Processes revenue increased slightly, primarily due to an increase in Office and Dynamics revenue. Revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 6%.

 

   

Office Commercial revenue increased $135 million or 1%, driven by higher revenue from Office 365 commercial, mainly due to growth in subscribers, offset by lower transactional license volume, reflecting a continued shift to Office 365 commercial and a decline in the business PC market. Revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 6%.

 

   

Office Consumer revenue decreased $69 million or 2%, driven by a decline in the consumer PC market, offset in part by higher revenue from Office 365 consumer, mainly due to growth in subscribers. Revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 4%.

 

   

Dynamics revenue increased 4%, mainly due to higher revenue from Dynamics CRM Online, driven by seat growth. Revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 6%.

Productivity and Business Processes operating income decreased $898 million or 7%, driven by lower gross margin. Gross margin decreased $970 million or 4%, primarily due to higher cost of revenue. Gross margin included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 6%. Cost of revenue increased $1.0 billion or 26%, primarily due to an increased mix of cloud offerings. Operating expenses decreased $72 million or 1%, driven by lower sales and marketing expenses. Sales and marketing expenses decreased $82 million or 2%, mainly due to a reduction in headcount-related expenses and lower fees paid to third-party enterprise software advisors.

Intelligent Cloud

Intelligent Cloud revenue increased $1.3 billion or 6%, primarily due to higher server products and cloud services revenue and Enterprise Services revenue. Revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 5%.

 

   

Server products and cloud services revenue grew $686 million or 4%, driven by revenue growth from Azure of 113%, offset in part by a decline in transactional revenue from our on-premises server products. Revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 5%.

 

   

Enterprise Services revenue grew $536 million or 11%, mainly due to growth in Premier Support Services. Revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 5%.

Intelligent Cloud operating income decreased $513 million or 5%, primarily due to higher operating expenses, offset in part by higher gross margin. Operating expenses increased $989 million or 12%, mainly due to higher research and development expenses and sales and marketing expenses. Research and development expenses increased $567 million or 21% and sales and marketing expenses increased $347 million or 9%, driven by increased strategic investments and acquisitions to drive cloud sales capacity and innovation. Gross margin increased $476 million or 3%, driven by revenue growth, offset in part by higher cost of revenue. Gross margin included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 5%. Cost of revenue increased $851 million or 15%, primarily driven by an increased mix of cloud services.

More Personal Computing

More Personal Computing revenue decreased $2.7 billion or 6%, mainly due to lower revenue from Devices and Windows, offset in part by higher revenue from search advertising and Gaming. Revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 2%.

 

   

Devices revenue decreased $3.7 billion or 32%, mainly due to lower revenue from phones, driven by the change in strategy for the phone business, offset in part by higher Microsoft Surface (“Surface”) revenue.

 

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Phone revenue decreased $4.2 billion or 56%, as we sold 13.8 million Microsoft Lumia (“Lumia”) phones and 75.5 million other phones in fiscal year 2016, compared with 36.8 million and 126.8 million sold, respectively, in fiscal year 2015. Surface revenue increased $486 million or 13%, primarily driven by the release of Surface Pro 4 and Surface Book in the second quarter of fiscal year 2016, as well as the release of Surface 3 in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2015, offset in part by a decline in revenue from Surface Pro 3. Devices revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 3%.

 

   

Windows revenue decreased $871 million or 5%, mainly due to lower revenue from patent licensing, Windows OEM licensing (“Windows OEM”), and Windows Phone licensing. Patent licensing revenue decreased 27%, due to a decline in license revenue per unit and licensed units. Windows OEM revenue decreased 1%. Windows OEM Pro revenue declined 6%, driven by a decline in the business PC market. Windows OEM non-Pro revenue increased 7%, outperforming the consumer PC market, driven by a higher mix of premium licenses sold. Windows Phone licensing revenue decreased 64%, driven by the recognition of deferred revenue in fiscal year 2015 from Windows Phone 8. Windows revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 2%.

 

   

Search advertising revenue increased $1.7 billion or 46%. Search advertising revenue, excluding traffic acquisition costs, increased 17%, primarily driven by growth in Bing, due to higher revenue per search and search volume. Search advertising revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 2%.

 

   

Gaming revenue increased $132 million or 1%, primarily due to higher revenue from Xbox Live and video games, offset in part by lower Xbox hardware revenue. Xbox Live revenue increased 17%, driven by higher revenue per transaction and volume of transactions. Video games revenue grew 34%, driven by the launch of Halo 5 and sales of Minecraft. We acquired Mojang AB (“Mojang”), the Swedish video game developer of the Minecraft gaming franchise, in November 2014. Xbox hardware revenue decreased 16%, mainly due to lower prices of Xbox One consoles sold and a decline in Xbox 360 console volume, offset in part by higher Xbox One console volume. Gaming revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 4%.

More Personal Computing operating income increased $1.5 billion or 32%, primarily due to lower operating expenses, offset in part by lower gross margin. Operating expenses decreased $2.0 billion or 13%, mainly due to lower sales and marketing expenses and research and development expenses. Sales and marketing expenses decreased $1.3 billion or 19% and research and development expenses decreased $676 million or 10%, driven by a reduction in phone expenses. Gross margin decreased $564 million or 3%, reflecting lower revenue, offset in part by a reduction in cost of revenue. Gross margin included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 5%. Cost of revenue decreased $2.1 billion or 9%, primarily driven by a reduction in phone sales, offset in part by higher search advertising cost of revenue.

Fiscal year 2015 compared with fiscal year 2014

Productivity and Business Processes

Productivity and Business Processes revenue decreased $546 million or 2%, mainly due to a decline in revenue from Office, offset in part by growth in revenue from Dynamics. Revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 2%.

 

   

Office Consumer revenue decreased $624 million or 17%, driven by declines in the Japan PC market, where Office is predominantly pre-installed on new PCs, offset in part by subscriber growth of Office 365 consumer.

 

   

Office Commercial revenue decreased $152 million or 1%, driven by lower transactional license volume, reflecting a decline in the business PC market following Windows XP end of support in the prior year, and declines in Japan, offset in part by subscriber growth and higher premium mix of Office 365 commercial.

 

   

Dynamics revenue grew 12%, mainly due to higher revenue from Dynamics CRM Online and Dynamics ERP products. Dynamics users increased, with 30% growth in number of Dynamics paid seats, and we ended fiscal year 2015 with over eight million paid seats.

 

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Productivity and Business Processes operating income decreased $814 million or 6%, driven by lower gross margin, offset in part by a reduction in operating expenses. Gross margin decreased $1.0 billion or 4%, primarily due to the decline in Office Consumer revenue. Gross margin included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 2%. Cost of revenue increased $492 million or 15%, primarily due to higher cloud infrastructure expenses, reflecting increased datacenter capacity to serve our Office 365 offerings. Operating expenses decreased $224 million or 2%. Sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses decreased $258 million and $125 million, respectively, mainly due to lower headcount-related expenses. Research and development expenses increased $159 million or 6%, mainly due to increased investment in new products and services.

Intelligent Cloud

Intelligent Cloud revenue increased $2.0 billion or 9%, mainly due to higher server products and services revenue, as well as higher Enterprise Services revenue. Revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 2%.

 

   

Server products and cloud services revenue grew $1.6 billion or 9%, primarily driven by higher premium mix of Microsoft SQL Server, Windows Server, and System Center, as well as continued revenue growth from Azure.

 

   

Enterprise Services revenue grew $325 million or 7%, mainly due to growth in Premier Support Services.

Intelligent Cloud operating income increased $1.4 billion or 17%, primarily due to higher gross margin, offset in part by higher operating expenses. Gross margin increased $1.6 billion or 10%, driven by revenue growth from our server products and services. Gross margin included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 2%. Cost of revenue increased $404 million or 7%, mainly due to higher cloud infrastructure expenses, reflecting increased datacenter capacity for our Azure services. Operating expenses increased $151 million or 2%, driven by higher research and development expenses. Research and development expenses increased $160 million or 6%, mainly due to increased investment in new products and services.

More Personal Computing

More Personal Computing revenue increased $4.7 billion or 12%, mainly due to growth in Devices, search advertising, and Gaming revenue, offset in part by a decline in revenue from Windows.

 

   

Devices revenue increased $7.0 billion or 152%, mainly due to a full year of phone sales and higher Surface revenue. Devices revenue included an unfavorable foreign currency impact of approximately 5%. Phones revenue increased $5.5 billion, as we sold 36.8 million Lumia phones and 126.8 million other phones in fiscal year 2015, compared with 5.8 million and 30.3 million sold, respectively, in fiscal year 2014 following the acquisition of Nokia Corporation’s (“Nokia”) Devices and Services business (“NDS”). We acquired NDS in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2014. Surface revenue increased 65% to $3.6 billion, primarily due to Surface Pro 3 units sold. Surface Pro 3 was released in June 2014.

 

   

Search advertising revenue increased $651 million or 22%, primarily driven by growth in Bing, due to higher revenue per search and search volume.

 

   

Gaming revenue increased $463 million or 5%, mainly due to growth in Xbox Live and video games revenue, offset in part by a decrease in Xbox hardware revenue and third-party video game royalties. We sold 12.1 million Xbox consoles in fiscal year 2015 compared with 11.7 million consoles in fiscal year 2014. Xbox Live revenue increased $500 million, driven by increased Xbox Live users and revenue per user. Video games revenue increased $265 million, mainly due to sales of Minecraft following the acquisition of Mojang in November 2014, and new Xbox titles released in the current year.

 

   

Windows revenue decreased $3.6 billion or 16%, mainly due to lower revenue from Windows OEM and Windows Phone. Windows OEM revenue decreased $1.9 billion or 15%, primarily due to declines of 15% in OEM Pro revenue and 16% in OEM non-Pro revenue. Windows OEM Pro revenue decreased, primarily due to benefits realized from the expiration of support for Windows XP in the prior year, and declines in the

 

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business PC market. Windows OEM non-Pro revenue declined, mainly due to an increased mix of opening price point devices sold, and declines in the consumer PC market. Windows Phone revenue, including related patent licensing, decreased $1.4 billion or 55%, primarily due to prior year revenue associated with our joint strategic initiatives with Nokia that terminated when we acquired NDS.

More Personal Computing operating income decreased $938 million or 17%, primarily due to higher operating expenses, as well as a reduction in gross margin. Gross margin decreased $364 million or 2%, reflecting a reduction in Windows gross margin, offset in part by an increase in devices gross margin. Cost of revenue increased $5.1 billion or 28%, driven by higher phones cost of revenue, as well as higher Xbox Live and search infrastructure costs, offset in part by a reduction in Windows Phone cost of revenue. Phones cost of revenue increased $4.8 billion, reflecting a full year of phone sales in fiscal year 2015. Windows Phone cost of revenue decreased $897 million, driven by prior year costs associated with our joint strategic initiatives with Nokia that terminated when we acquired NDS. Operating expenses increased $574 million or 4%, driven by a full year of NDS expenses. Research and development expenses increased $346 million or 5%, mainly due to increased investment in new product and services, including higher phone expenses, offset in part by reduced headcount-related expenses. Sales and marketing expenses increased $211 million or 3%, primarily due to higher phone expenses, offset in part by a decline in advertising and other marketing program costs.

Corporate and Other

Corporate and Other revenue primarily comprises certain revenue deferrals, including those related to Windows 10, Bundled Offerings, and video games. Corporate and Other operating income (loss) primarily comprises revenue deferrals and corporate-level activity not specifically allocated to a segment, including impairment, integration, and restructuring expenses.

Fiscal year 2016 compared with fiscal year 2015

Corporate and Other revenue decreased $6.9 billion, primarily due to the impact of the net revenue deferral from Windows 10. During fiscal year 2016, we deferred net revenue from Windows 10 of $6.6 billion. During fiscal year 2015, we recognized a net $303 million of previously deferred revenue related to Bundled Offerings.

Corporate and Other operating loss decreased $2.0 billion, primarily due to an $8.9 billion reduction in impairment, integration, and restructuring expenses, driven by prior year goodwill and asset impairment charges related to our phone business, offset in part by lower revenue.

Fiscal year 2015 compared with fiscal year 2014

Corporate and Other revenue increased $613 million, primarily due to the timing of net revenue deferrals compared to the prior year. During fiscal year 2015, we recognized a net $303 million of previously deferred revenue related to Bundled Offerings. During fiscal year 2014, we deferred a net $349 million of revenue related to Bundled Offerings.

Corporate and Other operating loss increased $9.3 billion, primarily due to higher impairment, integration, and restructuring expenses, offset in part by increased revenue.

OPERATING EXPENSES

Research and Development

 

(In millions, except percentages)    2016     2015     2014    

Percentage

Change 2016

Versus 2015

   

Percentage

Change 2015

Versus 2014

 


Research and development

   $   11,988      $   12,046      $   11,381        0%        6%   

As a percent of revenue

     14%        13%        13%        1ppt        0ppt   


 

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Research and development expenses include payroll, employee benefits, stock-based compensation expense, and other headcount-related expenses associated with product development. Research and development expenses also include third-party development and programming costs, localization costs incurred to translate software for international markets, and the amortization of purchased software code.

Fiscal year 2016 compared with fiscal year 2015

Research and development expenses decreased $58 million, primarily due to a reduction in phone expenses, driven by the change in strategy for the phone business, offset in part by increased strategic investments and acquisitions to drive cloud innovation.

Fiscal year 2015 compared with fiscal year 2014

Research and development expenses increased $665 million or 6%, mainly due to increased investment in new products and services, including $739 million higher phone expenses, offset in part by reduced headcount-related expenses.

Sales and Marketing

 

(In millions, except percentages)    2016     2015     2014    

Percentage

Change 2016

Versus 2015

   

Percentage

Change 2015

Versus 2014

 


Sales and marketing

   $   14,697      $   15,713      $   15,811        (6)%        (1)%   

As a percent of revenue

     17%        17%        18%        0ppt        (1)ppt   


Sales and marketing expenses include payroll, employee benefits, stock-based compensation expense, and other headcount-related expenses associated with sales and marketing personnel and the costs of advertising, promotions, trade shows, seminars, and other programs.

Fiscal year 2016 compared with fiscal year 2015

Sales and marketing expenses decreased $1.0 billion or 6%, primarily due to a reduction in phone expenses, driven by the change in strategy for the phone business. Expenses included a favorable foreign currency impact of approximately 2%.

Fiscal year 2015 compared with fiscal year 2014

Sales and marketing expenses decreased $98 million or 1%, primarily due to a decline in advertising and marketing programs costs and a reduction in headcount-related expenses, offset in part by an increase in phone expenses. Expenses included a favorable foreign currency impact of approximately 4%.

General and Administrative

 

(In millions, except percentages)    2016     2015     2014    

Percentage

Change 2016

Versus 2015

   

Percentage

Change 2015

Versus 2014

 


General and administrative

   $   4,563      $   4,611      $   4,677        (1)%        (1)%   

As a percent of revenue

     5%        5%        5%        0ppt        0ppt   


General and administrative expenses include payroll, employee benefits, stock-based compensation expense, severance expense, and other headcount-related expenses associated with finance, legal, facilities, certain human resources and other administrative personnel, certain taxes, and legal and other administrative fees.

 

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Fiscal year 2016 compared with fiscal year 2015

General and administrative expenses decreased $48 million or 1%, primarily due to a reduction in employee-related expenses, offset in part by increased investments in infrastructure supporting our business transformation. Expenses included a favorable foreign currency impact of approximately 2%.

Fiscal year 2015 compared with fiscal year 2014

General and administrative expenses were comparable to the prior year.

IMPAIRMENT, INTEGRATION, AND RESTRUCTURING EXPENSES

Impairment, integration, and restructuring expenses include costs associated with the impairment of goodwill and intangible assets related to our phone business, employee severance expenses and costs associated with the consolidation of facilities and manufacturing operations related to restructuring activities, and systems consolidation and other business integration expenses associated with our acquisition of NDS.

Fiscal year 2016 compared with fiscal year 2015

Impairment, integration, and restructuring expenses were $1.1 billion for fiscal year 2016, compared to $10.0 billion for fiscal year 2015.

During fiscal year 2016, we recorded $630 million of asset impairment charges related to our phone business. We also recorded $480 million of restructuring charges, including employee severance expenses and contract termination costs, primarily related to our previously announced phone business restructuring plans.

During fiscal year 2015, we recognized impairment charges of $7.5 billion related to our phone business. Our annual goodwill impairment test as of May 1, 2015 indicated that the carrying value of our previous Phone Hardware reporting unit goodwill exceeded its estimated fair value. Accordingly, we recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $5.1 billion, reducing our Phone Hardware reporting unit goodwill from $5.4 billion to $116 million, net of foreign currency remeasurements, as well as an impairment charge of $2.2 billion related to the write-down of our Phone Hardware reporting unit intangible assets. All remaining goodwill and intangible assets are included in our Devices reporting unit, within More Personal Computing under our current segment structure. Restructuring charges were $2.1 billion, including employee severance expenses and the write-down of certain assets in connection with our restructuring activities. Integration expenses associated with the acquisition of NDS were $435 million in fiscal year 2015.

Fiscal year 2015 compared with fiscal year 2014

Impairment, integration, and restructuring expenses were $10.0 billion for fiscal year 2015, compared to $127 million for fiscal year 2014. Impairment, integration, and restructuring expenses for fiscal year 2015 are comprised mainly of impairment and restructuring charges of $7.5 billion and $2.1 billion, respectively, related to our phone business. Integration expenses increased $308 million, due to a full-year of integration activities in fiscal year 2015 associated with the acquisition of NDS.

 

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OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE), NET

The components of other income (expense), net were as follows:

 

(In millions)                   


Year Ended June 30,    2016     2015     2014  

Dividends and interest income

   $       903      $    766      $    883   

Interest expense

     (1,243     (781     (597

Net recognized gains on investments

     668        716        437   

Net losses on derivatives

     (443     (423     (328

Net gains (losses) on foreign currency remeasurements

     (121     335        (165

Other

     (195     (267     (169


 


 


Total

   $ (431   $ 346      $ 61   
    


 


 


We use derivative instruments to: manage risks related to foreign currencies, equity prices, interest rates, and credit; enhance investment returns; and facilitate portfolio diversification. Gains and losses from changes in fair values of derivatives that are not designated as hedges are primarily recognized in other income (expense), net. Other than those derivatives entered into for investment purposes, such as commodity contracts, the gains (losses) are generally economically offset by unrealized gains (losses) in the underlying available-for-sale securities and gains (losses) on certain balance sheet amounts from foreign exchange rate changes.

Fiscal year 2016 compared with fiscal year 2015

Dividends and interest income increased due to higher portfolio balances and slightly higher yields on fixed-income securities. Interest expense increased due to higher outstanding long-term debt. Net recognized gains on investments decreased primarily due to higher other-than-temporary impairments and lower gains on sales of fixed-income securities, offset in part by higher gains on sales of equity securities. Other-than-temporary impairments were $322 million in fiscal year 2016, compared with $183 million in fiscal year 2015. Net losses on derivatives increased due to higher losses on currency and equity contracts and lower gains on interest rate contracts in the current period as compared to the prior period, offset in part by lower losses on commodity contracts. For fiscal year 2016, other reflects recognized losses from divestitures and certain joint ventures.

Fiscal year 2015 compared with fiscal year 2014

Dividends and interest income decreased due to lower yields on fixed-income securities, offset in part by higher portfolio balances. Interest expense increased due to higher outstanding long-term debt. Net recognized gains on investments increased primarily due to higher gains on sales of equity securities, offset in part by higher other-than-temporary impairments. Other-than-temporary impairments were $183 million in fiscal year 2015, compared with $106 million in fiscal year 2014. Net losses on derivatives increased due to losses on commodity contracts in fiscal year 2015 as compared to gains in fiscal year 2014, offset in part by lower losses on currency and equity contracts. For fiscal year 2015, other reflects recognized losses from certain joint ventures and divestitures.

INCOME TAXES

Fiscal year 2016 compared with fiscal year 2015

Our effective tax rate for fiscal years 2016 and 2015 was 15% and 34%, respectively. Our effective tax rate was lower than the U.S. federal statutory rate primarily due to earnings taxed at lower rates in foreign jurisdictions resulting from producing and distributing our products and services through our foreign regional operations centers in Ireland, Singapore, and Puerto Rico.

The decrease in our effective tax rate for fiscal year 2016 compared to fiscal year 2015 was primarily due to changes in the mix of our income before income taxes between the U.S. and foreign countries including the impact of net

 

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revenue deferrals related to sales of Windows 10, tax benefits from the adoption of the new accounting guidance relating to stock-based compensation, and distributions from foreign affiliates. The fiscal year 2015 effective tax rate included the tax impact of losses in foreign jurisdictions for which we may not realize a tax benefit, primarily as a result of impairment and restructuring charges.

The mix of income before income taxes between the U.S. and foreign countries impacted our effective tax rate as a result of the geographic distribution of, and customer demand for, our products and services. We supply our Windows PC operating system to customers through our U.S. regional operating center, while we supply the Microsoft Office system and our server products and tools to customers through our foreign regional operations centers. In fiscal year 2016, our U.S. loss before income taxes was $325 million and our foreign income before income taxes was $20.1 billion. Net revenue deferrals related to sales of Windows 10 negatively impacted our fiscal year 2016 U.S. loss before income taxes by $6.0 billion and foreign income before income taxes by $588 million. In fiscal year 2015, our U.S. income before income taxes was $7.4 billion and our foreign income before income taxes was $11.1 billion. Impairment, integration, and restructuring expense relating to our phone business decreased our fiscal year 2015 U.S income before income taxes by $1.1 billion and foreign income before income taxes by $8.9 billion.

On July 27, 2015, the U.S. Tax Court issued an opinion in Altera Corp. v. Commissioner related to the treatment of stock-based compensation expense in an intercompany cost-sharing arrangement. The IRS’s decision to appeal on February 19, 2016 prolongs the uncertainty regarding the ultimate outcome of the Altera case, and we do not expect to adjust our consolidated financial statements until there is a final resolution of this case.

Tax contingencies and other income tax liabilities were $11.8 billion and $12.1 billion as of June 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively, and are included in other long-term liabilities. This decrease relates primarily to tax credits available for carryover and a partial settlement of the IRS audit for tax years 2007 to 2009, offset by increases relating to intercompany transfer pricing.

While we settled a portion of the IRS audit for tax years 2004 to 2006 during the third quarter of fiscal year 2011, and settled a portion of the IRS audit for tax years 2007 to 2009 during the first quarter of fiscal year 2016, we remain under audit for those years. In February 2012, the IRS withdrew its 2011 Revenue Agents Report for tax years 2004 to 2006 and reopened the audit phase of the examination. As of June 30, 2016, the primary unresolved issue relates to transfer pricing, which could have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements if not resolved favorably. We believe our allowances for income tax contingencies are adequate. We have not received a proposed assessment for the unresolved issues and do not expect a final resolution of these issues in the next 12 months. Based on the information currently available, we do not anticipate a significant increase or decrease to our tax contingencies for these issues within the next 12 months. We also continue to be subject to examination by the IRS for tax years 2010 to 2016.

We are subject to income tax in many jurisdictions outside the U.S. Our operations in certain jurisdictions remain subject to examination for tax years 1996 to 2016, some of which are currently under audit by local tax authorities. The resolutions of these audits are not expected to be material to our consolidated financial statements.

Fiscal year 2015 compared with fiscal year 2014

Our effective tax rate for fiscal years 2015 and 2014 was 34% and 21%, respectively. The fiscal year 2015 effective rate increased by 13%, primarily due to goodwill and asset impairments and restructuring charges recorded in fiscal year 2015, most of which did not generate a tax benefit. Our effective tax rate was lower than the U.S. federal statutory rate primarily due to foreign earnings taxed at lower rates resulting from producing and distributing our products and services through our foreign regional operations centers in Ireland, Singapore, and Puerto Rico. In fiscal year 2015, this reduction was mostly offset by losses in foreign jurisdictions for which we may not realize a tax benefit, primarily as a result of impairment and restructuring charges.

Changes in the mix of income before income taxes between the U.S. and foreign countries impacted our effective tax rate as a result of the geographic distribution of, and customer demand for, our products and services. We supply our Windows PC operating system to customers through our U.S. regional operating center, while we supply

 

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the Microsoft Office system and our server products and tools to customers through our foreign regional operations centers. In fiscal years 2015 and 2014, our U.S. income before income taxes was $7.4 billion and $7.1 billion, respectively, and comprised 40% and 26%, respectively, of our income before income taxes. In fiscal years 2015 and 2014, our foreign income before income taxes was $11.1 billion and $20.7 billion, respectively, and comprised 60% and 74%, respectively, of our income before income taxes.

FINANCIAL CONDITION

Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Investments

Cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments totaled $113.2 billion as of June 30, 2016, compared with $96.5 billion as of June 30, 2015. Equity and other investments were $10.4 billion as of June 30, 2016, compared with $12.1 billion as of June 30, 2015. Our short-term investments are primarily intended to facilitate liquidity and for capital preservation. They consist predominantly of highly liquid investment-grade fixed-income securities, diversified among industries and individual issuers. The investments are predominantly U.S. dollar-denominated securities, but also include foreign currency-denominated securities in order to diversify risk. Our fixed-income investments are exposed to interest rate risk and credit risk. The credit risk and average maturity of our fixed-income portfolio are managed to achieve economic returns that correlate to certain fixed-income indices. The settlement risk related to these investments is insignificant given that the short-term investments held are primarily highly liquid investment-grade fixed-income securities.

Of the cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments as of June 30, 2016, $108.9 billion was held by our foreign subsidiaries and would be subject to material repatriation tax effects. The amount of cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments held by foreign subsidiaries subject to other restrictions on the free flow of funds (primarily currency and other local regulatory) was $2.4 billion. As of June 30, 2016, approximately 83% of the cash equivalents and short-term investments held by our foreign subsidiaries were invested in U.S. government and agency securities, approximately 4% were invested in corporate notes and bonds of U.S. companies, and approximately 5% were invested in U.S. mortgage- and asset-backed securities, all of which are denominated in U.S. dollars. The remaining cash equivalents and short-term investments held by our foreign subsidiaries were invested in foreign securities.

Securities lending

We lend certain fixed-income and equity securities to increase investment returns. The loaned securities continue to be carried as investments on our consolidated balance sheets. Cash and/or security interests are received as collateral for the loaned securities with the amount determined based upon the underlying security lent and the creditworthiness of the borrower. Collateral received is recorded as an asset with a corresponding liability. Our securities lending payable balance was $294 million as of June 30, 2016. Our average and maximum securities lending payable balances for fiscal year 2016 were $361 million and $1.2 billion, respectively. Intra-year variances in the amount of securities loaned are mainly due to fluctuations in the demand for the securities.

Valuation

In general, and where applicable, we use quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities to determine the fair value of our financial instruments. This pricing methodology applies to our Level 1 investments, such as exchange-traded mutual funds, domestic and international equities, and U.S. government securities. If quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities are not available to determine fair value, then we use quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities or inputs other than the quoted prices that are observable either directly or indirectly. This pricing methodology applies to our Level 2 investments such as corporate notes and bonds, common and preferred stock, foreign government bonds, mortgage- and asset-backed securities, U.S. government and agency securities, and certificates of deposit. Level 3 investments are valued using internally developed models with unobservable inputs. Assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis using unobservable inputs are an immaterial portion of our portfolio.

 

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A majority of our investments are priced by pricing vendors and are generally Level 1 or Level 2 investments as these vendors either provide a quoted market price in an active market or use observable inputs for their pricing without applying significant adjustments. Broker pricing is used mainly when a quoted price is not available, the investment is not priced by our pricing vendors, or when a broker price is more reflective of fair values in the market in which the investment trades. Our broker-priced investments are generally classified as Level 2 investments because the broker prices these investments based on similar assets without applying significant adjustments. In addition, all of our broker-priced investments have a sufficient level of trading volume to demonstrate that the fair values used are appropriate for these investments. Our fair value processes include controls that are designed to ensure appropriate fair values are recorded. These controls include model validation, review of key model inputs, analysis of period-over-period fluctuations, and independent recalculation of prices where appropriate.

Cash Flows

Fiscal year 2016 compared with fiscal year 2015

Cash flows from operations increased $3.7 billion to $33.3 billion during the fiscal year, mainly due to lower operating expenditures and a reduction in materials and production costs, offset in part by a decrease in cash received from customers. Cash used in financing decreased $1.3 billion to $8.4 billion, mainly due to a $4.6 billion increase in proceeds from issuances of debt, net of repayments, offset in part by a $1.5 billion increase in cash used for common stock repurchases and a $1.1 billion increase in dividends paid. Cash used in investing increased $949 million to $24.0 billion, mainly due to a $2.4 billion increase in cash used for additions to property and equipment and a $1.5 billion increase in cash used for net investment purchases, sales, and maturities, offset in part by a $2.3 billion decrease in cash used for acquisitions of companies, net of cash acquired, and purchases of intangibles and other assets.

Fiscal year 2015 compared with fiscal year 2014

Cash flows from operations decreased $2.8 billion to $29.7 billion, mainly due to an increase in materials and production costs in support of sales growth as well as payments related to restructuring charges and other changes in working capital, offset in part by increases in cash received from customers. Cash used in financing increased $1.0 billion to $9.7 billion, mainly due to a $7.1 billion increase in cash used for common stock repurchases, offset in part by a $6.7 billion increase in proceeds from issuances of debt, net of repayments. Cash used in investing increased $4.2 billion to $23.0 billion, mainly due to a $5.5 billion increase in cash used for net investment purchases, sales, and maturities, partially offset by a $2.2 billion decrease in cash used for acquisitions of companies, net of cash acquired, and purchases of intangible and other assets.

Debt

We issued debt to take advantage of favorable pricing and liquidity in the debt markets, reflecting our credit rating and the low interest rate environment. The proceeds of these issuances were or will be used for general corporate purposes, which may include, among other things, funding for working capital, capital expenditures, repurchases of capital stock, acquisitions, and repayment of existing debt. See Note 12 – Debt of the Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K) for further discussion.

Unearned Revenue

Unearned revenue as of June 30, 2016 was comprised mainly of unearned revenue from volume licensing programs. Unearned revenue from volume licensing programs represents customer billings for multi-year licensing arrangements paid for either at inception of the agreement or annually at the beginning of each coverage period and accounted for as subscriptions with revenue recognized ratably over the coverage period. Unearned revenue as of June 30, 2016 also included payments for: Windows 10 licenses; post-delivery support and consulting services to be performed in the future; Office 365 subscriptions; Xbox Live subscriptions; Microsoft Dynamics business solutions products; Skype prepaid credits and subscriptions; Bundled Offerings; and other offerings for which we have been paid in advance and earn the revenue when we provide the service or software, or otherwise meet the revenue recognition criteria.

 

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The following table outlines the expected future recognition of unearned revenue as of June 30, 2016:

 

(In millions)       


Three Months Ending,

        

September 30, 2016

   $ 10,194   

December 31, 2016

     8,348   

March 31, 2017

     5,868   

June 30, 2017

     3,058   

Thereafter

     6,441   


Total

   $   33,909   
    


Share Repurchases

On September 16, 2013, our Board of Directors approved a share repurchase program authorizing up to $40.0 billion in share repurchases. The share repurchase program became effective on October 1, 2013, has no expiration date, and may be suspended or discontinued at any time without notice. This share repurchase program replaced the share repurchase program that was announced on September 22, 2008 and expired on September 30, 2013. As of June 30, 2016, $7.1 billion remained of our $40.0 billion share repurchase program. While the program has no expiration date, we intend to complete it by December 31, 2016. All repurchases were made using cash resources.

During fiscal year 2016, we repurchased 294 million shares of Microsoft common stock for $14.8 billion under the share repurchase program approved by our Board of Directors on September 16, 2013. During fiscal year 2015, we repurchased 295 million shares of Microsoft common stock for $13.2 billion under the share repurchase program approved by our Board of Directors on September 16, 2013. During fiscal year 2014, we repurchased 175 million shares for $6.4 billion; 128 million shares were repurchased for $4.9 billion under the share repurchase program approved by our Board of Directors on September 16, 2013, and 47 million shares were repurchased for $1.5 billion under the share repurchase program that was announced on September 22, 2008 and expired September 30, 2013.

Dividends

See Note 18 – Stockholders’ Equity of the Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K) for further discussion.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We provide indemnifications of varying scope and size to certain customers against claims of intellectual property infringement made by third parties arising from the use of our products and certain other matters. Additionally, we have agreed to cover damages resulting from breaches of certain security and privacy commitments in our cloud business. In evaluating estimated losses on these indemnifications, we consider factors such as the degree of probability of an unfavorable outcome and our ability to make a reasonable estimate of the amount of loss. These obligations did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements during the periods presented.

 

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Contractual Obligations

The following table summarizes the payments due by fiscal year for our outstanding contractual obligations as of June 30, 2016:

 

(In millions)    2017     2018-2019     2020-2021     Thereafter     Total  


Long-term debt:  (a)

                                        

Principal payments

   $ 0      $ 5,050      $ 5,250      $ 30,649      $ 40,949   

Interest payments

     1,289        2,547        2,324        16,836        22,996   

Construction commitments  (b)

     1,809        162        0        0        1,971   

Operating leases  (c)

     961        1,918        1,467        2,118        6,464   

Purchase commitments  (d)

     13,214        1,102        758        4,004        19,078   

Other long-term liabilities  (e)

     0        87        23        275        385   


 


 


 


 


Total contractual obligations

   $   17,273      $   10,866      $   9,822      $   53,882      $   91,843   
    


 


 


 


 


 

(a)

See Note 12 – Debt of the Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K).

(b)

These amounts represent commitments for the construction of buildings, building improvements, and leasehold improvements.

(c)

These amounts represent undiscounted future minimum rental commitments under noncancellable facilities leases.

(d)

These amounts represent purchase commitments, including all open purchase orders and all contracts that are take-or-pay contracts that are not presented as construction commitments above.

(e)

We have excluded long-term tax contingencies, other tax liabilities, deferred income taxes, and long-term pension liabilities of $13.0 billion from the amounts presented as the timing of these obligations is uncertain. We have also excluded unearned revenue and non-cash items.

Other Planned Uses of Capital

In June 2016, we entered into a definitive agreement to acquire LinkedIn in an all-cash transaction valued at $26.2 billion, inclusive of LinkedIn’s net cash. We expect the acquisition will close in calendar year 2016, and we will finance the transaction primarily through the issuance of new debt.

We will continue to invest in sales, marketing, product support infrastructure, and existing and advanced areas of technology, as well as continue making acquisitions that align with our business strategy. Additions to property and equipment will continue, including new facilities, datacenters, and computer systems for research and development, sales and marketing, support, and administrative staff. We expect capital expenditures to increase in coming years in support of our productivity and platform strategy. We have operating leases for most U.S. and international sales and support offices and certain equipment. We have not engaged in any related party transactions or arrangements with unconsolidated entities or other persons that are reasonably likely to materially affect liquidity or the availability of capital resources.

Liquidity

We earn a significant amount of our operating income outside the U.S., which is deemed to be permanently reinvested in foreign jurisdictions. As a result, as discussed above under Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Investments, the majority of our cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments are held by foreign subsidiaries. We currently do not intend nor foresee a need to repatriate these funds. We expect existing domestic cash, cash equivalents, short-term investments, cash flows from operations, and access to capital markets to continue to be sufficient to fund our domestic operating activities and cash commitments for investing and financing activities, such as regular quarterly dividends, debt maturities, and material capital expenditures, for at least the next 12 months and thereafter for the foreseeable future. In addition, we expect existing foreign cash, cash equivalents, short-term investments, and cash flows from operations to continue to be sufficient to fund our foreign operating activities and cash commitments for investing activities, such as material capital expenditures, for at least the next 12 months and thereafter for the foreseeable future.

 

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Should we require more capital in the U.S. than is generated by our operations domestically, for example to fund significant discretionary activities, such as business acquisitions and share repurchases, we could elect to repatriate future earnings from foreign jurisdictions or raise capital in the U.S. through debt or equity issuances. These alternatives could result in higher effective tax rates, increased interest expense, or dilution of our earnings. We have borrowed funds domestically and continue to believe we have the ability to do so at reasonable interest rates.

RECENT ACCOUNTING GUIDANCE

See Note 1 – Accounting Policies of the Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K) for further discussion.

APPLICATION OF CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Preparing consolidated financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, and expenses. These estimates and assumptions are affected by management’s application of accounting policies. Critical accounting policies for us include revenue recognition, impairment of investment securities, goodwill, research and development costs, contingencies, income taxes, and inventories.

Revenue Recognition

Revenue recognition for multiple-element arrangements requires judgment to determine if multiple elements exist, whether elements can be accounted for as separate units of accounting, and if so, the fair value for each of the elements.

Judgment is also required to assess whether future releases of certain software represent new products or upgrades and enhancements to existing products. Certain volume licensing arrangements include a perpetual license for current products combined with rights to receive unspecified future versions of software products and are accounted for as subscriptions, with billings recorded as unearned revenue and recognized as revenue ratably over the coverage period.

Software updates are evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine whether they meet the definition of an upgrade, which may require revenue to be deferred and recognized when the upgrade is delivered. If it is determined that implied post-contract customer support (“PCS”) is being provided, revenue from the arrangement is deferred and recognized over the implied PCS term. If updates are determined to not meet the definition of an upgrade, revenue is generally recognized as products are shipped or made available.

Microsoft enters into arrangements that can include various combinations of software, services, and hardware. Where elements are delivered over different periods of time, and when allowed under U.S. GAAP, revenue is allocated to the respective elements based on their relative selling prices at the inception of the arrangement, and revenue is recognized as each element is delivered. We use a hierarchy to determine the fair value to be used for allocating revenue to elements: (i) vendor-specific objective evidence of fair value (“VSOE”), (ii) third-party evidence, and (iii) best estimate of selling price (“ESP”). For software elements, we follow the industry-specific software guidance which only allows for the use of VSOE in establishing fair value. Generally, VSOE is the price charged when the deliverable is sold separately or the price established by management for a product that is not yet sold if it is probable that the price will not change before introduction into the marketplace. ESPs are established as best estimates of what the selling prices would be if the deliverables were sold regularly on a stand-alone basis. Our process for determining ESPs requires judgment and considers multiple factors that may vary over time depending upon the unique facts and circumstances related to each deliverable.

In January 2015, we announced Windows 10 would be free to all qualified existing users of Windows 7 and Windows 8.1. This offer differs from historical offers preceding the launch of new versions of Windows as it is being made

 

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available for free to existing users in addition to new customers after the offer announcement. We evaluated the nature and accounting treatment of the Windows 10 offer and determined that it represents a marketing and promotional activity, in part because the offer is being made available for free to existing users. As this is a marketing and promotional activity, revenue recognition of new sales of Windows 8 will continue to be recognized as delivered.

Customers purchasing a Windows 10 license will receive unspecified updates and upgrades over the life of their Windows 10 device at no additional cost. As these updates and upgrades will not be sold on a stand-alone basis, we are unable to establish VSOE. Accordingly, revenue from licenses of Windows 10 is recognized ratably over the estimated life of the related device, which ranges between two to four years.

We currently are evaluating the impact of the new standard related to revenue recognition, which we anticipate will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. See Note 1 – Accounting Policies of the Notes to Financial Statements (Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K) for further discussion.

Impairment of Investment Securities

We review investments quarterly for indicators of other-than-temporary impairment. This determination requires significant judgment. In making this judgment, we employ a systematic methodology quarterly that considers available quantitative and qualitative evidence in evaluating potential impairment of our investments. If the cost of an investment exceeds its fair value, we evaluate, among other factors, general market conditions, credit quality of debt instrument issuers, the duration and extent to which the fair value is less than cost, and for equity securities, our intent and ability to hold, or plans to sell, the investment. For fixed-income securities, we also evaluate whether we have plans to sell the security or it is more likely than not that we will be required to sell the security before recovery. We also consider specific adverse conditions related to the financial health of and business outlook for the investee, including industry and sector performance, changes in technology, and operational and financing cash flow factors. Once a decline in fair value is determined to be other-than-temporary, an impairment charge is recorded to other income (expense), net and a new cost basis in the investment is established. If market, industry, and/or investee conditions deteriorate, we may incur future impairments.

Goodwill

We allocate goodwill to reporting units based on the reporting unit expected to benefit from the business combination. We evaluate our reporting units on an annual basis and, if necessary, reassign goodwill using a relative fair value allocation approach. Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level (operating segment or one level below an operating segment) on an annual basis (May 1 for us) and between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value. These events or circumstances could include a significant change in the business climate, legal factors, operating performance indicators, competition, or sale or disposition of a significant portion of a reporting unit.

Application of the goodwill impairment test requires judgment, including the identification of reporting units, assignment of assets and liabilities to reporting units, assignment of goodwill to reporting units, and determination of the fair value of each reporting unit. The fair value of each reporting unit is estimated primarily through the use of a discounted cash flow methodology. This analysis requires significant judgments, including estimation of future cash flows, which is dependent on internal forecasts, estimation of the long-term rate of growth for our business, estimation of the useful life over which cash flows will occur, and determination of our weighted average cost of capital.

The estimates used to calculate the fair value of a reporting unit change from year to year based on operating results, market conditions, and other factors. Changes in these estimates and assumptions could materially affect the determination of fair value and goodwill impairment for each reporting unit.

 

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Research and Development Costs

Costs incurred internally in researching and developing a computer software product are charged to expense until technological feasibility has been established for the product. Once technological feasibility is established, all software costs are capitalized until the product is available for general release to customers. Judgment is required in determining when technological feasibility of a product is established. We have determined that technological feasibility for our software products is reached after all high-risk development issues have been resolved through coding and testing. Generally, this occurs shortly before the products are released to manufacturing. The amortization of these costs is included in cost of revenue over the estimated life of the products.

Legal and Other Contingencies

The outcomes of legal proceedings and claims brought against us are subject to significant uncertainty. An estimated loss from a loss contingency such as a legal proceeding or claim is accrued by a charge to income if it is probable that an asset has been impaired or a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. In determining whether a loss should be accrued we evaluate, among other factors, the degree of probability of an unfavorable outcome and the ability to make a reasonable estimate of the amount of loss. Changes in these factors could materially impact our consolidated financial statements.

Income Taxes

The objectives of accounting for income taxes are to recognize the amount of taxes payable or refundable for the current year and deferred tax liabilities and assets for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in an entity’s financial statements or tax returns. We recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Accounting literature also provides guidance on derecognition of income tax assets and liabilities, classification of deferred income tax assets and liabilities, accounting for interest and penalties associated with tax positions, and income tax disclosures. Judgment is required in assessing the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized on our consolidated financial statements or tax returns. Variations in the actual outcome of these future tax consequences could materially impact our consolidated financial statements.

Inventories

Inventories are stated at average cost, subject to the lower of cost or market. Cost includes materials, labor, and manufacturing overhead related to the purchase and production of inventories. We regularly review inventory quantities on hand, future purchase commitments with our suppliers, and the estimated utility of our inventory. These reviews include analysis of demand forecasts, product life cycle status, product development plans, current sales levels, pricing strategy, and component cost trends. If our review indicates a reduction in utility below carrying value, we reduce our inventory to a new cost basis through a charge to cost of revenue.

 

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STATEMENT OF MANAGEMENT’S RESPONSIBILITY FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Management is responsible for the preparation of the consolidated financial statements and related information that are presented in this report. The consolidated financial statements, which include amounts based on management’s estimates and judgments, have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

The Company designs and maintains accounting and internal control systems to provide reasonable assurance at reasonable cost that assets are safeguarded against loss from unauthorized use or disposition, and that the financial records are reliable for preparing consolidated financial statements and maintaining accountability for assets. These systems are augmented by written policies, an organizational structure providing division of responsibilities, careful selection and training of qualified personnel, and a program of internal audits.

The Company engaged Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, to audit and render an opinion on the consolidated financial statements and internal control over financial reporting in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States).

The Board of Directors, through its Audit Committee, consisting solely of independent directors of the Company, meets periodically with management, internal auditors, and our independent registered public accounting firm to ensure that each is meeting its responsibilities and to discuss matters concerning internal controls and financial reporting. Deloitte & Touche LLP and the internal auditors each have full and free access to the Audit Committee.

 

Satya Nadella

Chief Executive Officer

Amy E. Hood

Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

Frank H. Brod

Corporate Vice President, Finance and Administration;

Chief Accounting Officer

 

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ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

RISKS

We are exposed to economic risk from foreign exchange rates, interest rates, credit risk, equity prices, and commodity prices. A portion of these risks is hedged, but they may impact our consolidated financial statements.

Foreign Currency

Certain forecasted transactions, assets, and liabilities are exposed to foreign currency risk. We monitor our foreign currency exposures daily and use hedges where practicable to offset the risks and maximize the economic effectiveness of our foreign currency positions. Principal currencies hedged include the euro, Japanese yen, British pound, Canadian dollar, and Australian dollar.

Interest Rate

Our fixed-income portfolio is diversified across credit sectors and maturities, consisting primarily of investment-grade securities. The credit risk and average maturity of the fixed-income portfolio is managed to achieve economic returns that correlate to certain global and domestic fixed-income indices. In addition, we use “To Be Announced” forward purchase commitments of mortgage-backed assets to gain exposure to agency mortgage-backed securities.

Equity

Our equity portfolio consists of global, developed, and emerging market securities that are subject to market price risk. We manage the securities relative to certain global and domestic indices and expect their economic risk and return to correlate with these indices.

Commodity

We use broad-based commodity exposures to enhance portfolio returns and facilitate portfolio diversification. Our investment portfolio has exposure to a variety of commodities, including precious metals, energy, and grain. We manage these exposures relative to global commodity indices and expect their economic risk and return to correlate with these indices.

VALUE-AT-RISK

We use a value-at-risk (“VaR”) model to estimate and quantify our market risks. VaR is the expected loss, for a given confidence level, in the fair value of our portfolio due to adverse market movements over a defined time horizon. The VaR model is not intended to represent actual losses in fair value, including determinations of other-than-temporary losses in fair value in accordance with U.S. GAAP, but is used as a risk estimation and management tool. The distribution of the potential changes in total market value of all holdings is computed based on the historical volatilities and correlations among foreign exchange rates, interest rates, equity prices, and commodity prices, assuming normal market conditions.

The VaR is calculated as the total loss that will not be exceeded at the 97.5 percentile confidence level or, alternatively stated, the losses could exceed the VaR in 25 out of 1,000 cases. Several risk factors are not captured in the model, including liquidity risk, operational risk, and legal risk.

 

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The following table sets forth the one-day VaR for substantially all of our positions as of June 30, 2016 and 2015 and for the year ended June 30, 2016:

 

(In millions)                   


    

June 30,

2016

   

June 30,

2015

   

Year Ended June 30,

2016

 
             


Risk Categories                Average     High     Low  

Foreign currency

   $ 92      $   120      $   171      $   258      $ 83   

Interest rate

   $ 58      $ 51      $ 56      $ 63      $ 50   

Equity

   $   157      $ 149      $ 163      $ 178      $   137   

Commodity

   $ 12      $ 13      $ 10      $ 14      $ 6   


Total one-day VaR for the combined risk categories was $225 million as of June 30, 2016 and $237 million as of June 30, 2015. The total VaR is 29% less as of June 30, 2016 and June 30, 2015, respectively, than the sum of the separate risk categories in the table above due to the diversification benefit of the combination of risks.

 

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ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

INCOME STATEMENTS

 

(In millions, except per share amounts)                   


Year Ended June 30,    2016     2015     2014  

Revenue:

                        

Product

   $   61,502      $   75,956      $   72,948   

Service and other

     23,818        17,624        13,885   


 


 


Total revenue

     85,320        93,580        86,833   


 


 


Cost of revenue:

                        

Product

     17,880        21,410        16,681   

Service and other

     14,900        11,628        10,397   


 


 


Total cost of revenue

     32,780        33,038        27,078   


 


 


Gross margin

     52,540        60,542        59,755   

Research and development

     11,988        12,046        11,381   

Sales and marketing

     14,697        15,713        15,811   

General and administrative

     4,563        4,611        4,677   

Impairment, integration, and restructuring

     1,110        10,011        127   


 


 


Operating income

     20,182        18,161        27,759   

Other income (expense), net

     (431     346        61   


 


 


Income before income taxes

     19,751        18,507        27,820   

Provision for income taxes

     2,953        6,314        5,746   


 


 


Net income

   $ 16,798      $ 12,193      $ 22,074   
    


 


 


Earnings per share:

                        

Basic

   $ 2.12      $ 1.49      $ 2.66   

Diluted

   $ 2.10      $ 1.48      $ 2.63   

Weighted average shares outstanding:

                        

Basic

     7,925        8,177        8,299   

Diluted

     8,013        8,254        8,399   

Cash dividends declared per common share

   $ 1.44      $ 1.24      $ 1.12   


See accompanying notes.

 

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COMPREHENSIVE INCOME STATEMENTS

 

(In millions)                   


Year Ended June 30,    2016     2015     2014  

Net income

   $   16,798      $   12,193      $   22,074   
    


 


 


Other comprehensive income (loss):

                        

Net unrealized gains (losses) on derivatives (net of tax effects of $(12) , $20, and $(4))

     (238     559        (35

Net unrealized gains (losses) on investments (net of tax effects of $(121) , $(197), and $936)

     (228     (362     1,737   

Translation adjustments and other (net of tax effects of $(33) , $16, and $12)

     (519     (1,383     263   


 


 


Other comprehensive income (loss)

     (985     (1,186     1,965   


 


 


Comprehensive income

   $ 15,813      $ 11,007      $ 24,039   
    


 


 


See accompanying notes.

 

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BALANCE SHEETS

 

(In millions)             


June 30,    2016     2015  

Assets

                

Current assets:

                

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 6,510      $ 5,595   

Short-term investments (including securities loaned of $204 and $75)

     106,730        90,931   


 


Total cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments

     113,240        96,526   

Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $426 and $335

     18,277        17,908   

Inventories

     2,251        2,902   

Other

     5,892        5,461   


 


Total current assets

     139,660        122,797   

Property and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $19,800 and $17,606

     18,356        14,731   

Equity and other investments

     10,431        12,053   

Goodwill

     17,872        16,939   

Intangible assets, net

     3,733        4,835   

Other long-term assets

     3,642        3,117   


 


Total assets

   $   193,694      $   174,472   
    


 


Liabilities and stockholders’ equity

                

Current liabilities:

                

Accounts payable

   $ 6,898      $ 6,591   

Short-term debt

     12,904        4,985   

Current portion of long-term debt

     0        2,499   

Accrued compensation

     5,264        5,096   

Income taxes

     580        606   

Short-term unearned revenue

     27,468        23,223   

Securities lending payable

     294        92   

Other

     5,949        6,555   


 


Total current liabilities

     59,357        49,647   

Long-term debt

     40,783        27,808   

Long-term unearned revenue

     6,441        2,095   

Deferred income taxes

     1,476        1,295   

Other long-term liabilities

     13,640        13,544   


 


Total liabilities

     121,697        94,389   


 


Commitments and contingencies

                

Stockholders’ equity:

                

Common stock and paid-in capital – shares authorized 24,000; outstanding 7,808 and 8,027

     68,178        68,465   

Retained earnings

     2,282        9,096   

Accumulated other comprehensive income

     1,537        2,522   


 


Total stockholders’ equity

     71,997        80,083   


 


Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

   $ 193,694      $ 174,472   
    


 


See accompanying notes.

 

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CASH FLOWS STATEMENTS

 

(In millions)                   


Year Ended June 30,    2016     2015     2014  

Operations

                        

Net income

   $      16,798      $    12,193      $    22,074   

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash from operations:

                        

Goodwill and asset impairments

     630        7,498        0   

Depreciation, amortization, and other

     6,622        5,957        5,212   

Stock-based compensation expense

     2,668        2,574        2,446   

Net recognized gains on investments and derivatives

     (223     (443     (109

Deferred income taxes

     332        224        (331

Deferral of unearned revenue

     57,072        45,072        44,325   

Recognition of unearned revenue

     (48,498     (44,920     (41,739

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

                        

Accounts receivable

     (530     1,456        (1,120

Inventories

     600        (272     (161

Other current assets

     (1,167     62        (29

Other long-term assets

     (41     346        (628

Accounts payable

     88        (1,054     473   

Other current liabilities

     (260     (624     1,075   

Other long-term liabilities

     (766     1,599        1,014   


 


 


Net cash from operations

     33,325        29,668        32,502   


 


 


Financing

                        

Proceeds from issuance of short-term debt, maturities of 90 days or less, net

     7,195        4,481        500   

Proceeds from issuance of debt

     13,884        10,680        10,350   

Repayments of debt

     (2,796     (1,500     (3,888

Common stock issued

     668        634        607   

Common stock repurchased

     (15,969     (14,443     (7,316

Common stock cash dividends paid

     (11,006     (9,882     (8,879

Other

     (369     362        (39


 


 


Net cash used in financing

     (8,393     (9,668     (8,665


 


 


Investing

                        

Additions to property and equipment

     (8,343     (5,944     (5,485

Acquisition of companies, net of cash acquired, and purchases of intangible and other assets

     (1,393     (3,723     (5,937

Purchases of investments

     (129,758     (98,729     (72,690

Maturities of investments

     22,054        15,013        5,272   

Sales of investments

     93,287        70,848        60,094   

Securities lending payable

     203        (466     (87


 


 


Net cash used in investing

     (23,950     (23,001     (18,833


 


 


Effect of foreign exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents

     (67     (73     (139


 


 


Net change in cash and cash equivalents

     915        (3,074     4,865   

Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period

     5,595        8,669        3,804   


 


 


Cash and cash equivalents, end of period

   $ 6,510      $ 5,595      $ 8,669   
    


 


 


See accompanying notes.

 

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STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY STATEMENTS

 

(In millions)                   


Year Ended June 30,    2016     2015     2014  

Common stock and paid-in capital

                        

Balance, beginning of period

   $    68,465      $    68,366      $    67,306   

Common stock issued

     668        634        607   

Common stock repurchased

     (3,689     (3,700     (2,328

Stock-based compensation expense

     2,668        2,574        2,446   

Stock-based compensation income tax benefits

     0        588        272   

Other, net

     66        3        63   


 


 


Balance, end of period

     68,178        68,465        68,366   


 


 


Retained earnings

                        

Balance, beginning of period

     9,096        17,710        9,895   

Net income

     16,798        12,193        22,074   

Common stock cash dividends

     (11,329     (10,063     (9,271

Common stock repurchased

     (12,283     (10,744     (4,988


 


 


Balance, end of period

     2,282        9,096        17,710   


 


 


Accumulated other comprehensive income

                        

Balance, beginning of period

     2,522        3,708        1,743   

Other comprehensive income (loss)

     (985     (1,186     1,965   


 


 


Balance, end of period

     1,537        2,522        3,708   


 


 


Total stockholders’ equity

   $ 71,997      $ 80,083      $ 89,784   
    


 


 


See accompanying notes.

 

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NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

NOTE 1 — ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Accounting Principles

The consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”).

We have recast certain prior period amounts to conform to the current period presentation, with no impact on consolidated net income or cash flows.

Principles of Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Microsoft Corporation and its subsidiaries. Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated. Equity investments through which we are able to exercise significant influence over but do not control the investee and are not the primary beneficiary of the investee’s activities are accounted for using the equity method. Investments through which we are not able to exercise significant influence over the investee and which do not have readily determinable fair values are accounted for under the cost method.

Segment Information

In June 2015, we announced a change in organizational structure to align to our strategic direction as a productivity and platform company. During the first quarter of fiscal year 2016, our chief operating decision maker, who is also our Chief Executive Officer, requested changes in the information that he regularly reviews for purposes of allocating resources and assessing performance. As a result, beginning in fiscal year 2016, we report our financial performance based on our new segments described in Note 21 – Segment Information and Geographic Data. We have recast certain prior period amounts to conform to the way we internally manage and monitor segment performance during fiscal year 2016. This change primarily impacted Note 10 – Goodwill, Note 15 – Unearned Revenue, and Note 21 – Segment Information and Geographic Data, with no impact on consolidated net income or cash flows.

Estimates and Assumptions

Preparing financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, and expenses. Examples of estimates include: loss contingencies; product warranties; the fair value of, and/or potential impairment of goodwill and intangible assets, for our reporting units; product life cycles; useful lives of our tangible and intangible assets; allowances for doubtful accounts; allowances for product returns; the market value of and volume of demand for our inventory; and stock-based compensation forfeiture rates. Examples of assumptions include: the elements comprising a software arrangement, including the distinction between upgrades or enhancements and new products; when technological feasibility is achieved for our products; the potential outcome of future tax consequences of events that have been recognized on our consolidated financial statements or tax returns; and determining when investment impairments are other-than-temporary. Actual results and outcomes may differ from management’s estimates and assumptions.

Foreign Currencies

Assets and liabilities recorded in foreign currencies are translated at the exchange rate on the balance sheet date. Revenue and expenses are translated at average rates of exchange prevailing during the year. Translation adjustments resulting from this process are recorded to other comprehensive income (“OCI”).

 

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Product Revenue and Service and Other Revenue

Service revenue exceeded 10% of total revenue for the first time in fiscal year 2016. As a result, we have separately disclosed product revenue and service and other revenue on our consolidated income statements.

Product revenue includes sales from operating systems; cross-device productivity applications; server applications; business solution applications; desktop and server management tools; software development tools; video games; hardware such as PCs, tablets, gaming and entertainment consoles, phones, other intelligent devices, and related accessories; and training and certification of computer system integrators and developers.

Service and other revenue includes sales from cloud-based solutions that provide customers with software, services, platforms, and content such as Office 365, Microsoft Azure (“Azure”), Microsoft Dynamics (“Dynamics”) CRM Online, and Xbox Live; solution support; and consulting services. Service and other revenue also includes sales from online advertising.

Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred, the fee is fixed or determinable, and collectability is probable. Revenue generally is recognized net of allowances for returns and any taxes collected from customers and subsequently remitted to governmental authorities.

Revenue recognition for multiple-element arrangements requires judgment to determine if multiple elements exist, whether elements can be accounted for as separate units of accounting, and if so, the fair value for each of the elements.

Microsoft enters into arrangements that can include various combinations of software, services, and hardware. Where elements are delivered over different periods of time, and when allowed under U.S. GAAP, revenue is allocated to the respective elements based on their relative selling prices at the inception of the arrangement, and revenue is recognized as each element is delivered. We use a hierarchy to determine the fair value to be used for allocating revenue to elements: (i) vendor-specific objective evidence of fair value (“VSOE”), (ii) third-party evidence, and (iii) best estimate of selling price (“ESP”). For software elements, we follow the industry specific software guidance which only allows for the use of VSOE in establishing fair value. Generally, VSOE is the price charged when the deliverable is sold separately or the price established by management for a product that is not yet sold if it is probable that the price will not change before introduction into the marketplace. ESPs are established as best estimates of what the selling prices would be if the deliverables were sold regularly on a stand-alone basis. Our process for determining ESPs requires judgment and considers multiple factors that may vary over time depending upon the unique facts and circumstances related to each deliverable.

Revenue for retail packaged products, products licensed to original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”), and perpetual licenses under certain volume licensing programs generally is recognized as products are shipped or made available.

Technology guarantee programs are accounted for as multiple-element arrangements as customers receive free or significantly discounted rights to use upcoming new versions of a software product if they license existing versions of the product during the eligibility period. Revenue is allocated between the existing product and the new product, and revenue allocated to the new product is deferred until that version is delivered. The revenue allocation is based on the VSOE of fair value of the products. The VSOE of fair value for upcoming new products are based on the price determined by management having the relevant authority when the element is not yet sold separately, but is expected to be sold in the near future at the price set by management.

Software updates that will be provided free of charge are evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine whether they meet the definition of an upgrade and create a multiple-element arrangement, which may require revenue to be deferred and recognized when the upgrade is delivered, or if it is determined that implied post-contract customer support (“PCS”) is being provided, the arrangement is accounted for as a multiple-element arrangement and all

 

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revenue from the arrangement is deferred and recognized over the implied PCS term when the VSOE of fair value does not exist. If updates are determined to not meet the definition of an upgrade, revenue is generally recognized as products are shipped or made available.

Customers purchasing a Windows 10 license will receive unspecified updates and upgrades over the life of their Windows 10 device at no additional cost. As these updates and upgrades will not be sold on a stand-alone basis, we are unable to establish VSOE of fair value. Accordingly, revenue from licenses of Windows 10 is recognized ratably over the estimated life of the related device, which ranges between two to four years.

Certain volume licensing arrangements include a perpetual license for current products combined with rights to receive unspecified future versions of software products, which we have determined are additional software products and are therefore accounted for as subscriptions, with billings recorded as unearned revenue and recognized as revenue ratably over the coverage period. Arrangements that include term-based licenses for current products with the right to use unspecified future versions of the software during the coverage period, are also accounted for as subscriptions, with revenue recognized ratably over the coverage period. Revenue from cloud-based services arrangements that allow for the use of a hosted software product or service over a contractually determined period of time without taking possession of software are accounted for as subscriptions with billings recorded as unearned revenue and recognized as revenue ratably over the coverage period beginning on the date the service is made available to customers. Revenue from cloud-based services arrangements that are provided on a consumption basis (for example, the amount of storage used in a particular period) is recognized commensurate with the customer utilization of such resources.

Some volume licensing arrangements include time-based subscriptions for cloud-based services and software offerings that are accounted for as subscriptions. These arrangements are considered multiple-element arrangements. However, because all elements are accounted for as subscriptions and have the same coverage period and delivery pattern, they have the same revenue recognition timing.

Revenue related to Microsoft Surface (“Surface”) devices, Xbox consoles, games published by us, phones, and other hardware components is generally recognized when ownership is transferred to the resellers or to end customers when selling directly through Microsoft retail stores and online marketplaces. A portion of revenue may be deferred when these products are combined with software elements, and/or services. Revenue related to licensing for games published by third parties for use on the Xbox consoles is recognized when games are manufactured by the game publishers.

Display advertising revenue is recognized as advertisements are displayed. Search advertising revenue is recognized when the ad appears in the search results or when the action necessary to earn the revenue has been completed. Consulting services revenue is recognized as services are rendered, generally based on the negotiated hourly rate in the consulting arrangement and the number of hours worked during the period. Consulting revenue for fixed-price services arrangements is recognized as services are provided.

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue includes: manufacturing and distribution costs for products sold and programs licensed; operating costs related to product support service centers and product distribution centers; costs incurred to include software on PCs sold by OEMs, to drive traffic to our websites, and to acquire online advertising space; costs incurred to support and maintain Internet-based products and services, including datacenter costs and royalties; warranty costs; inventory valuation adjustments; costs associated with the delivery of consulting services; and the amortization of capitalized software development costs. Capitalized software development costs are amortized over the estimated lives of the products.

Product Warranty

We provide for the estimated costs of fulfilling our obligations under hardware and software warranties at the time the related revenue is recognized. For hardware warranties, we estimate the costs based on historical and projected

 

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product failure rates, historical and projected repair costs, and knowledge of specific product failures (if any). The specific hardware warranty terms and conditions vary depending upon the product sold and the country in which we do business, but generally include parts and labor over a period generally ranging from 90 days to three years. For software warranties, we estimate the costs to provide bug fixes, such as security patches, over the estimated life of the software. We regularly reevaluate our estimates to assess the adequacy of the recorded warranty liabilities and adjust the amounts as necessary.

Research and Development

Research and development expenses include payroll, employee benefits, stock-based compensation expense, and other headcount-related expenses associated with product development. Research and development expenses also include third-party development and programming costs, localization costs incurred to translate software for international markets, and the amortization of purchased software code and services content. Such costs related to software development are included in research and development expense until the point that technological feasibility is reached, which for our software products, is generally shortly before the products are released to manufacturing. Once technological feasibility is reached, such costs are capitalized and amortized to cost of revenue over the estimated lives of the products.

Sales and Marketing

Sales and marketing expenses include payroll, employee benefits, stock-based compensation expense, and other headcount-related expenses associated with sales and marketing personnel, and the costs of advertising, promotions, trade shows, seminars, and other programs. Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. Advertising expense was $1.6 billion, $1.9 billion, and $2.3 billion in fiscal years 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively.

Stock-Based Compensation

Compensation cost for stock awards is measured at the fair value on the grant date and recognized as expense, net of estimated forfeitures, over the related service period using the straight-line method. The fair value of stock awards is based on the quoted price of our common stock on the grant date less the present value of expected dividends not received during the vesting period. Compensation expense for the employee stock purchase plan (“ESPP”) is measured as the discount the employee is entitled to upon purchase and is recognized in the period of purchase.

Income Taxes

Income tax expense includes U.S. and international income taxes, the provision for U.S. taxes on undistributed earnings of international subsidiaries not deemed to be permanently reinvested, and interest and penalties on uncertain tax positions. Certain income and expenses are not reported in tax returns and financial statements in the same year. The tax effect of such temporary differences is reported as deferred income taxes. Deferred tax assets are reported net of a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that a tax benefit will not be realized. All deferred income taxes are classified as long-term on our consolidated balance sheets.

Fair Value Measurements

We account for certain assets and liabilities at fair value. The hierarchy below lists three levels of fair value based on the extent to which inputs used in measuring fair value are observable in the market. We categorize each of our fair value measurements in one of these three levels based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety. These levels are:

 

   

Level 1 – inputs are based upon unadjusted quoted prices for identical instruments traded in active markets. Our Level 1 non-derivative investments primarily include U.S. government securities, domestic and international equities, and actively traded mutual funds. Our Level 1 derivative assets and liabilities include those actively traded on exchanges.

 

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Level 2 – inputs are based upon quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, and model-based valuation techniques (e.g. the Black-Scholes model) for which all significant inputs are observable in the market or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities. Where applicable, these models project future cash flows and discount the future amounts to a present value using market-based observable inputs including interest rate curves, credit spreads, foreign exchange rates, and forward and spot prices for currencies and commodities. Our Level 2 non-derivative investments consist primarily of corporate notes and bonds, common and preferred stock, mortgage- and asset-backed securities, U.S. government and agency securities, and foreign government bonds. Our Level 2 derivative assets and liabilities primarily include certain over-the-counter option and swap contracts.

 

   

Level 3 – inputs are generally unobservable and typically reflect management’s estimates of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. The fair values are therefore determined using model-based techniques, including option pricing models and discounted cash flow models. Our Level 3 non-derivative assets primarily comprise investments in common and preferred stock, and goodwill and intangible assets, when they are recorded at fair value due to an impairment charge. Unobservable inputs used in the models are significant to the fair values of the assets and liabilities.

We measure certain assets, including our cost and equity method investments, at fair value on a nonrecurring basis when they are deemed to be other-than-temporarily impaired. The fair values of these investments are determined based on valuation techniques using the best information available, and may include quoted market prices, market comparables, and discounted cash flow projections. An impairment charge is recorded when the cost of the investment exceeds its fair value and this condition is determined to be other-than-temporary.

Our other current financial assets and our current financial liabilities have fair values that approximate their carrying values.

Financial Instruments

Investments

We consider all highly liquid interest-earning investments with a maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. The fair values of these investments approximate their carrying values. In general, investments with original maturities of greater than three months and remaining maturities of less than one year are classified as short-term investments. Investments with maturities beyond one year may be classified as short-term based on their highly liquid nature and because such marketable securities represent the investment of cash that is available for current operations. All cash equivalents and short-term investments are classified as available-for-sale and realized gains and losses are recorded using the specific identification method. Changes in market value, excluding other-than-temporary impairments, are reflected in OCI.

Equity and other investments classified as long-term include both debt and equity instruments. Debt and publicly-traded equity securities are classified as available-for-sale and realized gains and losses are recorded using the specific identification method. Changes in the market value of available-for-sale securities, excluding other-than-temporary impairments, are reflected in OCI. Common and preferred stock and other investments that are restricted for more than one year or are not publicly traded are recorded at cost or using the equity method.

We lend certain fixed-income and equity securities to increase investment returns. These transactions are accounted for as secured borrowings and the loaned securities continue to be carried as investments on our consolidated balance sheets. Cash and/or security interests are received as collateral for the loaned securities with the amount determined based upon the underlying security lent and the creditworthiness of the borrower. Cash received is recorded as an asset with a corresponding liability.

Investments are considered to be impaired when a decline in fair value is judged to be other-than-temporary. Fair value is calculated based on publicly available market information or other estimates determined by management. We employ a systematic methodology on a quarterly basis that considers available quantitative and qualitative

 

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evidence in evaluating potential impairment of our investments. If the cost of an investment exceeds its fair value, we evaluate, among other factors, general market conditions, credit quality of debt instrument issuers, the duration and extent to which the fair value is less than cost, and for equity securities, our intent and ability to hold, or plans to sell, the investment. For fixed-income securities, we also evaluate whether we have plans to sell the security or it is more likely than not that we will be required to sell the security before recovery. We also consider specific adverse conditions related to the financial health of and business outlook for the investee, including industry and sector performance, changes in technology, and operational and financing cash flow factors. Once a decline in fair value is determined to be other-than-temporary, an impairment charge is recorded to other income (expense), net and a new cost basis in the investment is established.

Derivatives

Derivative instruments are recognized as either assets or liabilities and are measured at fair value. The accounting for changes in the fair value of a derivative depends on the intended use of the derivative and the resulting designation.

For derivative instruments designated as fair value hedges, the gains (losses) are recognized in earnings in the periods of change together with the offsetting losses (gains) on the hedged items attributed to the risk being hedged. For options designated as fair value hedges, changes in the time value are excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness and are recognized in earnings.

For derivative instruments designated as cash flow hedges, the effective portion of the gains (losses) on the derivatives is initially reported as a component of OCI and is subsequently recognized in earnings when the hedged exposure is recognized in earnings. For options designated as cash flow hedges, changes in the time value are excluded from the assessment of hedge effectiveness and are recognized in earnings. Gains (losses) on derivatives representing either hedge components excluded from the assessment of effectiveness or hedge ineffectiveness are recognized in earnings.

For derivative instruments that are not designated as hedges, gains (losses) from changes in fair values are primarily recognized in other income (expense), net. Other than those derivatives entered into for investment purposes, such as commodity contracts, the gains (losses) are generally economically offset by unrealized gains (losses) in the underlying available-for-sale securities, which are recorded as a component of OCI until the securities are sold or other-than-temporarily impaired, at which time the amounts are reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income (“AOCI”) into other income (expense), net.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

The allowance for doubtful accounts reflects our best estimate of probable losses inherent in the accounts receivable balance. We determine the allowance based on known troubled accounts, historical experience, and other currently available evidence. Activity in the allowance for doubtful accounts was as follows:

 

(In millions)                   


Year Ended June 30,    2016     2015     2014  

Balance, beginning of period

   $   335      $   301      $   336   

Charged to costs and other

     146        77        16   

Write-offs

     (55     (43     (51


 


 


Balance, end of period

   $ 426      $ 335      $ 301   
    


 


 


Inventories

Inventories are stated at average cost, subject to the lower of cost or market. Cost includes materials, labor, and manufacturing overhead related to the purchase and production of inventories. We regularly review inventory

 

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quantities on hand, future purchase commitments with our suppliers, and the estimated utility of our inventory. If our review indicates a reduction in utility below carrying value, we reduce our inventory to a new cost basis through a charge to cost of revenue.

Property and Equipment

Property and equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation, and depreciated using the straight-line method over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term. The estimated useful lives of our property and equipment are generally as follows: computer software developed or acquired for internal use, three to seven years; computer equipment, two to three years; buildings and improvements, five to 15 years; leasehold improvements, three to 20 years; and furniture and equipment, one to 10 years. Land is not depreciated.

Goodwill

Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level (operating segment or one level below an operating segment) on an annual basis (May 1 for us) and between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value.

Intangible Assets

All of our intangible assets are subject to amortization and are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated period of benefit, ranging from one to 15 years. We evaluate the recoverability of intangible assets periodically by taking into account events or circumstances that may warrant revised estimates of useful lives or that indicate the asset may be impaired.

Recent Accounting Guidance

Recently adopted accounting guidance

Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting

In March 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued a new standard that changes the accounting for certain aspects of share-based payments to employees. The new guidance requires excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies to be recorded in the income statement when stock awards vest or are settled. In addition, cash flows related to excess tax benefits will no longer be separately classified as a financing activity apart from other income tax cash flows. The standard also allows us to repurchase more of an employee’s vesting shares for tax withholding purposes without triggering liability accounting, clarifies that all cash payments made to tax authorities on an employee’s behalf for withheld shares should be presented as a financing activity on our cash flows statement, and provides an accounting policy election to account for forfeitures as they occur. The new standard is effective for us beginning July 1, 2017, with early adoption permitted.

We elected to early adopt the new guidance in the third quarter of fiscal year 2016 which requires us to reflect any adjustments as of July 1, 2015, the beginning of the annual period that includes the interim period of adoption. The primary impact of adoption was the recognition of excess tax benefits in our provision for income taxes rather than paid-in capital for all periods in fiscal year 2016. Additional amendments to the accounting for income taxes and minimum statutory withholding tax requirements had no impact to retained earnings as of July 1, 2015, where the cumulative effect of these changes are required to be recorded. We have elected to continue to estimate forfeitures expected to occur to determine the amount of compensation cost to be recognized in each period.

We elected to apply the presentation requirements for cash flows related to excess tax benefits retrospectively to all periods presented which resulted in an increase to both net cash from operations and net cash used in financing of $588 million and $271 million for the years ended June 30, 2015 and 2014, respectively. The presentation requirements for cash flows related to employee taxes paid for withheld shares had no impact to any of the periods presented on our consolidated cash flows statements since such cash flows have historically been presented as a financing activity.

 

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Adoption of the new standard resulted in the recognition of excess tax benefits in our provision for income taxes rather than paid-in capital of $402 million for the year ended June 30, 2016.

Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes

In November 2015, the FASB issued guidance that requires companies to classify all deferred tax assets and liabilities as noncurrent on the balance sheet rather than separately disclosing deferred taxes as current and noncurrent. This standard is effective for us beginning July 1, 2017, and can be early adopted and applied either prospectively or retrospectively to all periods presented upon adoption.

We elected to early adopt the new guidance in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2016 on a retrospective basis. While the guidance changes the manner in which deferred taxes are classified on the balance sheet, we are still required to offset deferred tax assets and liabilities for each taxpaying component within a tax jurisdiction. Adoption of the new standard impacted our previously reported results as follows:

 

(In millions)   

June 30,

2015

 


      
 
As
adjusted
  
  
   
 
As
reported
  
  

Balance sheets:

                

Current deferred income tax assets

   $ 0      $ 1,915   

Other long-term assets

   $ 3,117      $ 2,953   

Other current liabilities

   $ 6,555      $ 6,766   

Long-term deferred income tax liabilities

   $   1,295      $   2,835   


Recent accounting guidance not yet adopted

Financial Instruments – Credit Losses

In June 2016, the FASB issued a new standard to replace the incurred loss impairment methodology in current GAAP with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. For trade and other receivables, loans, and other financial instruments, we will be required to use a forward-looking expected loss model rather than the incurred loss model for recognizing credit losses which reflects losses that are probable. Credit losses relating to available-for-sale debt securities will also be recorded through an allowance for credit losses rather than as a reduction in the amortized cost basis of the securities. The new standard will be effective for us beginning July 1, 2020, with early adoption permitted beginning July 1, 2019. Application of the amendments is through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the effective date. We are currently evaluating the impact of this standard on our consolidated financial statements.

Leases

In February 2016, the FASB issued a new standard related to leases to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by requiring the recognition of lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet. Most prominent among the amendments is the recognition of assets and liabilities by lessees for those leases classified as operating leases under previous U.S. GAAP. Under the new standard, disclosures are required to meet the objective of enabling users of financial statements to assess the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. We will be required to recognize and measure leases at the beginning of the earliest period presented using a modified retrospective approach.

The new standard will be effective for us beginning July 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted. We currently anticipate early adoption of the new standard effective July 1, 2017 in conjunction with our adoption of the new revenue standard. Our ability to early adopt is dependent on system readiness, including software procured from third-party providers, and the completion of our analysis of information necessary to restate prior period financial statements.

 

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We anticipate this standard will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. While we are continuing to assess all potential impacts of the standard, we currently believe the most significant impact relates to our accounting for office, retail, and datacenter operating leases.

Financial Instruments – Recognition, Measurement, Presentation, and Disclosure

In January 2016, the FASB issued a new standard to amend certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. Most prominent among the amendments is the requirement for changes in the fair value of our equity investments, with certain exceptions, to be recognized through net income rather than OCI. The new standard will be effective for us beginning July 1, 2018. The application of the amendments will result in a cumulative-effect adjustment to our consolidated balance sheets as of the effective date. We are currently evaluating the impact of this standard on our consolidated financial statements.

Revenue from Contracts with Customers

In May 2014, the FASB issued a new standard related to revenue recognition. Under the new standard, revenue is recognized when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services and is recognized in an amount that reflects the consideration which the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. In addition, the standard requires disclosure of the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers. The FASB has recently issued several amendments to the standard, including clarification on accounting for licenses of intellectual property and identifying performance obligations.

The guidance permits two methods of adoption: retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented (full retrospective method), or retrospectively with the cumulative effect of initially applying the guidance recognized at the date of initial application (the cumulative catch-up transition method). We currently anticipate adopting the standard using the full retrospective method to restate each prior reporting period presented.

The new standard will be effective for us beginning July 1, 2018, and adoption as of the original effective date of July 1, 2017 is permitted. We currently anticipate early adoption of the new standard effective July 1, 2017. Our ability to early adopt using the full retrospective method is dependent on system readiness, including software procured from third-party providers, and the completion of our analysis of information necessary to restate prior period financial statements.

We anticipate this standard will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. While we are continuing to assess all potential impacts of the standard, we currently believe the most significant impact relates to our accounting for software license revenue. We expect revenue related to hardware, cloud offerings, and professional services to remain substantially unchanged. Specifically, under the new standard we expect to recognize Windows 10 revenue predominantly at the time of billing rather than ratably over the life of the related device. We also expect to recognize license revenue at the time of billing rather than over the subscription period from certain multi-year commercial software subscriptions that include both software licenses and Software Assurance. Due to the complexity of certain of our commercial license subscription contracts, the actual revenue recognition treatment required under the standard will be dependent on contract-specific terms, and may vary in some instances from recognition at the time of billing.

We currently believe that the net change in Windows 10 revenue from period to period is indicative of the net change in revenue we expect from the adoption of the new standard.

NOTE 2 — EARNINGS PER SHARE

Basic earnings per share (“EPS”) is computed based on the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS is computed based on the weighted average number of shares of common stock plus the effect of dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method. Dilutive potential common shares include outstanding stock options and stock awards.

 

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The components of basic and diluted EPS are as follows:

 

(In millions, except earnings per share)                   


Year Ended June 30,    2016     2015     2014  

Net income available for common shareholders (A)

   $   16,798      $   12,193      $   22,074   

Weighted average outstanding shares of common stock (B)

     7,925        8,177        8,299   

Dilutive effect of stock-based awards

     88        77        100   


 


 


Common stock and common stock equivalents (C)

     8,013        8,254        8,399   
    


 


 


Earnings Per Share

                        

Basic (A/B)

   $ 2.12      $ 1.49      $ 2.66   

Diluted (A/C)

   $ 2.10      $ 1.48      $ 2.63   


Anti-dilutive stock-based awards excluded from the calculations of diluted EPS were immaterial during the periods presented.

NOTE 3 — OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE), NET

The components of other income (expense), net were as follows:

 

(In millions)                   


Year Ended June 30,    2016     2015     2014  

Dividends and interest income

   $       903      $    766      $    883   

Interest expense

     (1,243     (781     (597

Net recognized gains on investments

     668        716        437   

Net losses on derivatives

     (443     (423     (328

Net gains (losses) on foreign currency remeasurements

     (121     335        (165

Other

     (195     (267     (169


 


 


Total

   $ (431   $ 346      $ 61   
    


 


 


Following are details of net recognized gains (losses) on investments during the periods reported:

 

(In millions)                   


Year Ended June 30,    2016     2015     2014  

Other-than-temporary impairments of investments

   $ (322   $ (183   $ (106

Realized gains from sales of available-for-sale securities

       1,376          1,176           776   

Realized losses from sales of available-for-sale securities

     (386     (277     (233


 


 


Total

   $ 668      $ 716      $ 437   
    


 


 


 

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NOTE 4 — INVESTMENTS

Investment Components

The components of investments, including associated derivatives, but excluding held-to-maturity investments, were as follows:

 

(In millions)    Cost Basis    

Unrealized

Gains

   

Unrealized

Losses

   

Recorded

Basis

   

Cash

and Cash

Equivalents

   

Short-term

Investments

   

Equity

and Other

Investments

 


June 30, 2016

                                                        

Cash

   $ 3,501      $ 0      $ 0      $ 3,501      $ 3,501      $ 0      $ 0   

Mutual funds

     1,012        0        0        1,012        1,012        0        0   

Commercial paper

     298        0        0        298        298        0        0   

Certificates of deposit

     1,000        0        0        1,000        868        132        0   

U.S. government and agency securities

     89,970        245        (11     90,204        100        90,104        0   

Foreign government bonds

     5,502        10        (18     5,494        731        4,763        0   

Mortgage- and asset-backed securities

     4,789        21        (2     4,808        0        4,808        0   

Corporate notes and bonds

     6,509        110        (35     6,584        0        6,584        0   

Municipal securities

     285        57        0        342        0        342        0   

Common and preferred stock

     5,597        4,452        (236     9,813        0        0        9,813   

Other investments

     590        0        0        590        0        (3     593   


 


 


 


 


 


 


Total

   $   119,053      $   4,895      $   (302   $   123,646      $   6,510      $   106,730      $   10,406   
    


 


 


 


 


 


 


 

(In millions)    Cost Basis    

Unrealized

Gains

   

Unrealized

Losses

   

Recorded

Basis

   

Cash

and Cash

Equivalents

   

Short-term

Investments

   

Equity

and Other

Investments

 


June 30, 2015

                                                        

Cash

   $ 3,679      $ 0      $ 0      $ 3,679      $ 3,679      $ 0      $ 0   

Mutual funds

     1,100        0        0        1,100        1,100        0        0   

Commercial paper

     1        0        0        1        1        0        0   

Certificates of deposit

     906        0        0        906        776        130        0   

U.S. government and agency securities

     72,843        76        (30     72,889        39        72,850        0   

Foreign government bonds

     5,477        3        (24     5,456        0        5,456        0   

Mortgage- and asset-backed securities

     4,899        23        (6     4,916        0        4,916        0   

Corporate notes and bonds

     7,192        97        (37     7,252        0        7,252        0   

Municipal securities

     285        35        (1     319        0        319        0   

Common and preferred stock

     6,668        4,986        (215     11,439        0        0        11,439   

Other investments

     597        0        0        597        0        8        589   


 


 


 


 


 


 


Total

   $   103,647      $   5,220      $   (313   $   108,554      $   5,595      $   90,931      $   12,028   
    


 


 


 


 


 


 


As of June 30, 2016 and 2015, the recorded bases of common and preferred stock that are restricted for more than one year or are not publicly traded were $767 million and $561 million, respectively. These investments are carried at cost and are reviewed quarterly for indicators of other-than-temporary impairment. It is not practicable for us to reliably estimate the fair value of these investments.

As of June 30, 2016 and 2015, the collateral received under agreements for loaned securities totaled $294 million and $92 million, which is primarily comprised of U.S. government and agency securities.

 

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Unrealized Losses on Investments

Investments with continuous unrealized losses for less than 12 months and 12 months or greater and their related fair values were as follows:

 

     Less than 12 Months     12 Months or Greater           Total
Unrealized
Losses
 
    


 


         
(In millions)    Fair Value     Unrealized
Losses
    Fair Value     Unrealized
Losses
   

Total

Fair Value

   


June 30, 2016

                                                

U.S. government and agency securities

   $ 5,816      $ (3   $ 432      $ (8   $ 6,248      $ (11

Foreign government bonds

     3,452        (3     35        (15     3,487        (18

Mortgage- and asset-backed securities

     844        (1     322        (1     1,166        (2

Corporate notes and bonds

     1,180        (11     788        (24     1,968        (35

Common and preferred stock

     896        (147     390        (89     1,286        (236


 


 


 


 


 


Total

   $   12,188      $   (165   $   1,967      $   (137   $   14,155      $   (302
    


 


 


 


 


 


 

     Less than 12 Months     12 Months or Greater           Total
Unrealized
Losses
 
    


 


         
(In millions)    Fair Value     Unrealized
Losses
    Fair Value     Unrealized
Losses
   

Total

Fair Value

   


June 30, 2015

                                                

U.S. government and agency securities

   $ 6,636      $ (9   $ 421      $ (21   $ 7,057      $ (30

Foreign government bonds

     4,611        (12     18        (12     4,629        (24

Mortgage- and asset-backed securities

     3,171        (5     28        (1     3,199        (6

Corporate notes and bonds

     2,946        (29     104        (8     3,050        (37

Municipal securities

     36        (1     0        0        36        (1

Common and preferred stock

     1,389        (180     148        (35     1,537        (215


 


 


 


 


 


Total

   $   18,789      $   (236   $   719      $   (77   $   19,508      $   (313
    


 


 


 


 


 


Unrealized losses from fixed-income securities are primarily attributable to changes in interest rates. Unrealized losses from domestic and international equities are due to market price movements. Management does not believe any remaining unrealized losses represent other-than-temporary impairments based on our evaluation of available evidence.

Deb